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Tuesday, June 25 • 13:00 - 14:30
Shaping and regulating coastal and marine tourism experiences. (1)

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Chaired by: Dearden, P.

Toward valuable weather and sea ice services for the marine Arctic
Maaike Knol & Jelmer Jeuring

The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average. This has severe consequences for the natural environment. At the same time, a transforming environment – in particular retreating sea ice - allows for an increase in maritime activities in areas such as around Svalbard, with a rapid growth in cruise tourism and a northward move of fisheries. These activities take place in a dynamic environment where weather and ice conditions can change rapidly, and where information about conditions might be difficult to access or lack necessary qualities needed to make decisions across temporal scale-levels. Hence, there is an increased need for salient weather and sea-ice services. Since ‘salience’ can only result from co-productive processes of sensemaking, we aim to explore user-producer interfaces of weather and sea ice services for the marine Arctic.

We describe a two-stage methodological approach. The first stage consists of a series of in-depth, qualitative interviews with personnel from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute to explore dynamics of day-to-day and strategic interactions between service providers and their maritime users. For the second stage, a participatory mapping survey was designed and spread among experienced captains and navigators to achieve enhanced understanding of how services are used in contextual planning and operations and the challenges that arise herein. We present preliminary combined results of the two studies. This includes insight into users’ contextual needs and how these relate to challenges and opportunities raised by meteorologists. We discuss how the potentially transformative role of users’ local knowledge and observations might enhance the salience of weather and sea ice services in the Arctic, while shifting the dynamics between users and service providers. In doing so, we reflect upon the performative role of our participatory method and the central role of meteorologists’ perspectives herein.


Swamping: How social media is rendering traditional coastal marine wildlife tourism management approaches obsolete.
Philip Dearden

Coastal marine wildlife tourism can provide an effective alternative to more extractive livelihoods for achieving conservation goals in many settings. However success is predicated upon the ability of managers to assess site and target species characteristics and establish objectives, indicators and standards to ensure that negative environmental impacts do not occur at the site. Recent evidence from Southeast Asia suggests that this rationale approach is being swamped in many instances by the very rapid increases in visitation associated with the speed of communication among large audiences permitted by social media. Sites are being overwhelmed and suffering significant negative impacts before managers have opportunity to intervene. This paper outlines traditional approaches and provides examples of such swamping effects in both Thailand and the Philippines. In both countries, impacts became so severe that the Prime Ministers had to become involved in abruptly closing all visitation to several sites until new management approaches could be devised. In Thailand some ecological recovery has already been observed at such sites although legal challenges continue to block needed management interventions for more sustainable tourism models to be implemented. The paper illustrates the importance of changes over time in management approaches and some of the current and future challenges facing managers of sites where conservation outcomes are expected.


Mapping and documenting coastal and marine recreation and tourism– the Danish approach
Berit C. Kaae & Anton S. Olafsson

The Danish marine waters and 8,750 km coastlines include diverse and attractive landscapes/seascapes and provide a multitude of coastal and marine recreation opportunities for recreationists and tourists. Activities include diverse maritime-oriented mobilities from shoreline activities enjoying the sea, in-water activities, underwater activities , above-water, and on-water activities.
Our challenge was to map and document these highly diverse activities at national level to provide documentation and spatial mapping of the sector for inclusion into maritime spatial planning (MSP). Two national studies were undertaken to collect national marine-oriented recreation data: A crowdsource-based survey using an online PPGIS-mapping tool allowing respondents to map places of coastal and marine recreation and identify key facts about their activity and the site. Secondly, this mapping tool was used in combination with a national representative survey of the Danish adult population with 10,291 valid responses. These studies collected in-depth knowledge of 92 coastal and marine-oriented recreation activities grouped in 16 main types as well as nationwide spatial mapping. Approx. 16,000 recreation sites were mapped. We perceive outdoor recreation and tourism to be two ends of a spectrum: 1) local recreation in the home municipality, 2) day-visits by one-day tourists participation in recreation activities outside their municipality and 3) tourism - where coastal and marine recreation activities are undertaken while staying overnight outside the home municipality (25 % in our data). Results show that 77.6 percent of the adult population has participated in water-oriented recreation within the past year and that activities are widespread and highly diverse. Our data was triangulated with AIS data on recreational boating to better include the linear maritime mobilities. Overall our approaches provide a valid documentation and mapping at national level that could be relevant in other countries.




Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam