Tuesday, June 25 • 15:00 - 16:30
Understanding perceptions, participatory processes, and potential for effective marine management. (1)

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* panel desciption and paper abstracts in the attachment.

Chaired by: Kelly, R. & Mackey, M

Panel introduction
Involvement of the social sciences in marine management efforts is increasing, with great potential to advise and increase management success. Exploitation, conservation, and user conflict in multi-use marine areas are some of the of issues apparent at the fore of the marine socio-ecological research agenda. Our snapshot of exciting research brings together multiple components that can inform and contribute to this development of effective marine management, and which we hope can provoke interesting and inspiring discussion with our colleagues at the MARE Conference. Within this session, we will:

- Deliver novel and compelling research on social licence, support, and conflict in marine spaces.
- Present specific case studies, including management preferences of local stakeholders, a social network analysis of stakeholders involved in turtle conservation, and the role of media in marine environmental conflict, and
- Outline prospective thinking for effective participatory processes and marine management.

Multiple approaches to understanding recreational fishers’ management preferences
Mary Mackay

Understanding the uncertainty in preferences of fishers is fundamental for effective evidence-based decision making. To this end, this study aims to understand recreational fishers’ management preferences to inform decision makers who are balancing sustainability and societal goals. Specifically, this study uses a combination of a non-market valuation method which incorporates fishers to make trade-offs as well as an opinion based survey approach within a consumptive recreational fishery. In Tasmanian, Australia, the east coast Rock Lobster stocks have been in decline and consequently a ten-year strategy was implemented in 2013 to rebuild them to healthy levels. To achieve this, measures to limit the amount of lobsters caught were implemented for the recreational sector but further restrictions are required to meet and sustain the stock rebuilding goals. As a diverse fishery- with divers, potters, ring, and multi-use fishers- and a range of avidity levels, it is expected to contain fishers with divergent preferences towards management. This paper will outline 1) the opinions of fishers’ perceived support and effectiveness of management measures collected via a phone survey, 2) the behaviours of fishers within hypothetical management scenarios as defined by five management tools using a discrete choice experiment, and 3) the trade-offs fishers make between these five management tools. We find both homogenous and heterogeneous preferences between fishing modes and avidity levels. There was consensual aversion towards a reduction in bag limit or season length by all fishers. Other management tools have less consensus in preference and any changes in these tools could impact a sub-section of the fishery population. We suggest specific future management approaches that fishers support that also minimally impact their utility.

Publicised scrutiny and mediatised environmental conflict in aquaculture
Coco Cullen-Knox

As global fish consumption grows, aquaculture is set to rapidly expand off coastlines around the world. Although seen as the future for seafood production, aquaculture carries environmental and social impacts. For example, salmon aquaculture has been a site of contention in many countries which farm the fish in their coastal waters. Likewise, the salmon aquaculture industry in Tasmania, Australia’s southern island state, is experiencing considerable growth at a time of rapid social and technological changes. This has instigated heightened public debate, protest, environmental campaigning and media attention regarding the risks of Tasmanian salmon aquaculture. This research examines how environmental risks concerning Tasmanian salmon aquaculture are defined, articulated and negotiated between varying actors, both locally and transnationally in the Australia-Asia region. This is discussed in terms ofhow this in turn influences governance most broadly, through the way science-based information is utilised and values positions are articulated, aggregated and considered in agenda setting and problem definition in the decision-making process. Contemporary areas of contention around the accountability, transparency, inclusion and the links between public, policy and media highlight the complexity of communication mechanisms and practices in current environmental conflicts.

The basis for benefit sharing in fisheries policy: bold promises and missed opportunities for Australian fisheries
Emily Ogier & Caleb Gardner

Fisheries public policy is necessarily built on multiple policy goals that reflect the intent to manage resource use within ecologically sustainable constraints while also delivering beneficial social, cultural and economic outcomes. However, who has standing, who are the intended beneficiaries of these outcomes, and who is affected is rarely named beyond ‘the community’ or ‘the industry’. The resulting dearth in direction for constituency, benefit sharing and distributional mechanisms can lead to a range of unintended consequences, including benefit hoarding by key private actors with negligible or only indirect community net benefit derived. Through content analysis of policy frameworks for Australia’s managed fisheries, combined with assessments of social and economic performance for selected cases which include cases of ‘super-profit’ fisheries, we examine the implications of policy design and goal ambiguity for benefit sharing. We then propose a benefit pathway conceptual model for conceiving of the policy means that determine the distributional outcomes of fisheries management to assist policy communities in matching policy goals and more operational objectives to policy means.

Social network analysis: How do social and institutional characteristics support long-term marine conservation?
Ms Sierra Ison, Dr Christopher Cvitanovic, Dr Ingrid van Putten, Dr Alistair Hobday

A critical gap in marine conservation is a lack of long-term stakeholder commitment to ensure social and environmental outcomes. Difficulty arises from insufficient attention to the social and institutional dynamics that influence conservation decision-making and assists conservation action. As a result, consensus has developed on the need to include stakeholders in framing, implementing, and monitoring conservation initiatives. Focusing on the 30-year Northwest Shelf Flatback Turtle Conservation Program (NWSFTCP) in Western Australia, this study uses a Social Network Analysis (SNA) to measure how individuals and organisation communicate, learn, and share knowledge across conservation schemes. Relationships and social influence as captured by SNA offer a useful perspective for understanding and addressing these issues. We begin to identify and understand these interactions by examining how formal and informal power dynamics and shadow networks influence long-term conservation of flatback turtles. To expose how the networks structure and functions change over time, we introduce the use of feedback loops. This tool begins to identify gaps within the networks, uncover points of power to assess connectivity between stakeholders, and how to build stakeholder commitment for long-term conservation action. The novel use of feedback loops within an SNA provide a means to properly model the relational context and dimensions in which behaviour takes places and allows for the creation of a conservation agenda that safeguards the needs of stakeholders. By valuing how formal and informal human-environment and human-human relations effect marine conservation outcomes, we can improve conservation outcomes for the environment and humanity.

avatar for Coco Cullen-Knox

Coco Cullen-Knox

PhD Candidate/Research Assistant, Centre for Marine Socioecology / Uniiversity of Tasmania
With a background in the natural sciences and in environmental consulting I developed an interest in how environmental risks were negotiated publicly and how this might interact with governance more broadly. My research has followed environmental campaigns regarding salmon aquaculture... Read More →
avatar for Emily Ogier

Emily Ogier

Institute for Marine & Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania
I am a human geographer and political economist by training with an interest in governance and institutional design. I coordinate the social and economic research subprogram for the Australian Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, which draws on a range of human dimensions... Read More →

Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam