Tuesday, June 25 • 16:45 - 18:15
European Maritime and Coastal Cultural Heritage: Walking a fine line between utilisation and preservation in the Blue Growth Era.

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Chaired by: Delaney. A. E.

European Coastal and Maritime Cultural Heritage: Walking a fine line between utilisation and preservation in the Blue Growth Era
Alyne Elizabeth Delaney
Aalborg University 

This panel presents on-going, cutting edge research on European maritime and coastal in/tangible cultural heritage. Cultural heritage (CH) provides a sense of place, unity, and belonging to people living in and visiting coastal and maritime regions and seas. Rooted in specific landscapes, seascapes, buildings, stories, traditions, language, and cultural practices, cultural heritage is a fundamental part of every society. It connects people to each other and to the past and helps guide the future.
Protection and advocacy for cultural heritage can strengthen identity and local society, thereby improving overall quality of life. Culture and heritage are essential in maintaining and building Europe’s economic, social, cultural and natural capital. Realizing the potential of cultural heritage in these terms can generate prosperity, bring new jobs, enhance communities and improve environments in ways comparable to Blue Growth initiatives. Indeed, the European Commission is pushing for such Blue Growth-CH-related developments and initiatives now.
Yet, coastal cultural landscapes face risks from climate change, pollution, urbanisation, mass tourism, demographic challenges in remote regions, the transformation of the European fishing industry, neglect, and inconsistent policies of sea and shore conservation across governance scales and between regions.
In the panel, we open with a theoretical paper presenting a “three pillars” concept of sustainable utilization of maritime cultural heritage, one which is dependent upon the concepts of space, place and identity, resilience and adaptation, and participatory governance. The subsequent papers provide empirical data from European case studies in Estonia, France, Portugal, and elsewhere in Europe which focus on the threats to maritime CH and practical and pragmatic steps for managing CH. The panel ends with open discussion on the cultural and societal importance of maritime and coastal cultural heritage in Europe, and the world.

The Three Pillars necessary for sustainable utilization of maritime cultural heritage: Space, Place, and Identity, Resilience and Adaptation, and Participatory Governance” 
Alyne Delaney & Kristen Ounanian

With sustainable utilization of maritime and coastal Cultural Heritage (CH) as an ultimate goal, this paper presents our understanding of CH based upon a theoretical framework of three pillars: space, place, and identity; resilience and adaptation; and deliberative and participatory governance. Combining these three theoretical pillars brings insights for the sustainable usage and governance of maritime and coastal CH for the benefits of society. Only once the importance of coastal spaces and places and how they form identities are known; how cultures and society are vulnerable or resilient and can adapt; and how good governance takes place, can CH be used sustainably—to the benefit of society.

Review of threats to European maritime CH and risk management strategies (European-wide)
Alexandra Baixinho, Cristina PITA, Margarida Silva, Laura Ferguson, Brendan Murtagh & Wesley Flannery

Coastal maritime and cultural heritage provides a sense of place, unity, and belonging. Rooted in specific landscapes, seascapes, buildings, stories, traditions, language, and cultural practices, cultural heritage is a fundamental part of every society. It connects people to each other and to the past and helps guide the future. Despite its importance, cultural heritage is exposed to environmental and human caused threats, e.g. sea-level rising, coastal erosion, flooding, pollution, vandalism, tourism, mismanagement, “MacDonaldization”. Several countries are already developing risk management strategies to mitigate threats and preserve tangible and intangible maritime heritage. Under the H2020 project PERICLES ‘PrEseRvIng and sustainably governing Cultural heritage and Landscapes in European coastal and maritime regionS’ a literature review identified the main risks to cultural heritage globally, followed by empirical work to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders (academics, government and non-government stakeholders) about risks and risk mitigation strategies on eight case study regions across six European seas (Central Portugal, North-East Aegean Sea, Malta, Scotland, Ireland and Northern Ireland, Wadden Sea, inshore coastal Denmark and Danish islands, South-West coast of Estonia, and Brittany). This paper provides an overview of the major threats to CH and the risk management strategies that are applied to mitigate them and to preserve tangible and intangible maritime assets.

Threats and Opportunities for maritime cultural heritage: a case study in Gulf of Livonia
Maili Roio & Tanel Saimre

Inhabitants of the Estonian island of Kihnu in the Gulf of Livonia have maintained their traditional cultural practices to such a large degree that the island has been inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The resultant increase in tourism and reliance on income from it creates a Catch-22 situation: tourism threatens the traditional lifestyle on the one hand, and limits the community’s capacity to change on the other.
The Baltic Sea (and Gulf of Livonia as a part of it) also has most shipwrecks per sq km of all the bodies of water in the world. This abundance of underwater cultural heritage is an opportunity (to develop diving tourism, for example) and also a responsibility (to do it sustainably). Integrating underwater CH into maritime spatial planning is a necessary but not sufficient condition for that. Our case study demonstrates an attempt to merge all these.

Spatial Planning and Maritime Cultural Heritage in French law :
Between protected areas of environmental law and maritime spatial planning, which future for cultural heritage?

Nicolas Boillet

In French environmental law, maritime and coastal cultural heritage and landscapes are notably protected and promoted by means of space protection instruments, which are either general (regional natural park) or specific to the sea (marine natural park). The interest of these parks is to inventory the heritage of a territory, to reveal its value and to provide for management measures. These instruments do not contain directly protective provisions, such as prohibitions to do work, unlike the techniques of protection of historic monuments provided for by cultural heritage legislation. But these natural parks stand out in a flexible relationship to town and country planning documents. The interest of these instruments is also to federate the will of local authorities and to involve the population.
In addition to environmental protection legislation, there is also another policy of maritime spatial planning. Directive 2014/89 / EU of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning has obliged states to implement a maritime spatial planning process. Cultural heritage is also captured by this other policy. The Directive refers to Integrated Coastal Zone Management but does not include it in its scope. ICZM instruments are also relevant for participating in the preservation of cultural heritage.
The challenge is to evaluate the interest of various planning instruments in the preservation and management of maritime cultural heritage. In the framework of the Pericles project, this paper should serve as a guide to prepare a field study on the Gulf of Morbihan, territory where a set of protective instruments is concentrated because of the very rich cultural heritage site.


Nicolas Boillet

senior lecturer, Brest University
Nicolas Boillet, senior lecturer in publicLaw (maître de conférences en droit public) at Brest University, IUEM, UMR AMURE (laboratory), co-director of the master's degree in maritime activities law. Research field : public law, environmental law, maritime and coastal law, spec... Read More →

Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam