Tuesday, June 25 • 16:45 - 18:15
Coastal governance approaches

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Chaired by: Morrison, T.H.

Governance ‘ingredients’ for operationalizing integrated coastal and marine management initiatives: Insights from lived experiences in the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic Canada
Sondra Eger & Simon Courtenay

Practical approaches to operationalize integrated coastal and marine management are under-investigated. Defined here as a holistic and strategic governance arrangement employed worldwide to help move beyond conventional sector-based approaches, integrated coastal and marine management contributes to the sustainability of complex and dynamic social-ecological systems. In Canada, for example, advancing integrated initiatives such as ecosystem-based approaches and marine spatial planning has proven difficult despite ample effort. This study uses an abductive approach to examine how, and to what degree past integrative initiatives have been operationalized -planned, implemented, monitored/evaluated, adapted. Our case in the Bay of Fundy in Atlantic Canada is a unique social-ecological system with diverse and ecologically significant habitats, activities competing for access to resources and rich cultural attachments to the ocean. In-person, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 68 individuals across multiple sectors and scales with experience and interest in past or future integrative initiatives in the Bay of Fundy for professional, personal, or cultural reasons. Results indicate that few initiatives have progressed beyond planning into the implementation phase due to impediments related to: changes in political leadership; local resource user conflicts; incompatible jurisdictional incentives; unclear legislation; and, lack of participatory processes. By understanding the lived experiences of individuals involved in past and current integrated initiatives, insights into key governance ‘ingredients’ for enhancing the resilience and desired outcomes of integrated initiatives emerged. This study provides a synthesis of existing impediments, opportunities and recommendations for operationalizing integrated coastal and marine management initiatives for both the Bay of Fundy as well as other global regions with similar problem contexts. These results shape how we as scholars, practitioners and managers conceptualize integrated coastal and marine management as a governance approach for advancing sustainability within coastal and marine social-ecological systems.

The black box of power in polycentric marine governance
 Tiffany H Morrison

Failure to address unsustainable change in marine environments is often attributed to failures in conventional environmental governance. Polycentric environmental governance—the popular alternative—involves many centres of authority interacting coherently for a common governance goal. Yet, longitudinal analysis reveals many polycentric systems are struggling to cope with the growing impacts, pace, and scope of social and environmental change. Analytic shortcomings are also beginning to appear, particularly in the treatment of power. This paper draws together diverse social science perspectives and research into a variety of cases to show how different types of power shape rule setting, issue construction, and policy implementation in polycentric environmental governance. The paper outlines an important and emerging research agenda for polycentric marine governance, integrating diverse types of power into analytical and practical models.

How can different planning approaches increase coastal governance integration? Case studies from Norway
Ann-Magnhild Solås
In Norway, spatial planning of the near shore waters, termed coastal zone planning, is a task delegated to the local municipal authorities. Given that the 273 coastal municipalities have different planning needs and practices, and that sectors such as fisheries, aquaculture or environmental management are governed by state sector authorities, there are calls for increased integration of coastal governance. In this paper, we discuss how the municipal planning may answer to this call. There are several planning approaches that might lead to increased governance integration. Some municipalities produce a spatial sub-plan for their coastal waters alone, others plan their entire space, land and marine areas, in a joint plan in order to increase integration of land, shoreline and marine uses. Other approaches include producing spatial plans across jurisdictional borders, for instance including several municipalities, either through inter-municipal plans or through regional county level planning. Utilizing existing frameworks on marine governance integration, this paper discusses how these different planning approaches affect integration across the land-sea boundary; geographical borders; institutions and governance levels; and sector interests and stakeholders. How can different approaches to spatial planning contribute to more integrated governance of the coastal zone? Which practices and processes lead to increased integration, and how do these differ between planning approaches? And how are sector interests included in the different planning processes?

Circular economy as a remedy for fishermen from Polish Lagoons low incomes. (poster)
Marcin Rakowski, Adam Mytlewski, Olga Szulecka.

In the area of the Vistula and Szczecin Lagoons, fishing has been a low-profit profession for over a dozen years. This is a huge change for the entire region, because the fisherman's profession has been perceived so far as a profitable traditional occupation, which is a regional hallmark supporting the local identity. Maintenance of the fisherman from fishing poses now a big challenge. The resources of valuable species like are very limited. Increasing the share of low-value species fishery resulted in lowering living standards of the fishermen's families.
The solution proposed by the Be-Rural project is to contribute to the promotion of the region through its natural biological resources, their effective local utilization and maximizing the added value obtained by local communities. Residents of lagoon regions are the goal of activities aimed at increasing the awareness that the resource is the coastal location or conditions for tourism, but also exploitation of biological resources. With the support of science, NGO’s and local authorities, it is possible to create the basis for economic development using local biological potential - fish resources. The first step of Be-Rural project is to determine which species occurring in the lagoon waters give the opportunity to promote them as a product closely related to the region. Then a set of guidelines for these areas development will be prepared, to help the local communities to fully utilize fish resources and to increase locally generated benefits in line with the principles of circular bioeconomy. The key factor for success of the assumed activities is the need to maintain the resulting added value as close as possible to the place of obtaining the fish stock. This can be achieved by promoting the regional character of the product, but also by proposing new methods for managing natural resources.

Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam