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Wednesday, June 26 • 13:00 - 14:30
Methods for Values and Valuation in Coastal and Marine Realms

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Chaired by: Johnson, D.

Assessing the value of the coast for human well-being: a case study from Plymouth (Devon, UK)
Rebecca Shellock, Tobias Börger, Caroline Hattam, Mathew White, Lewis Elliott, Joanne Garrett & Obioha Chukwunyere Ukoumunne.

The concept of well-being is gaining traction in the fields of environmental management and conservation and is central to the ecosystem service approach to decision-making. Despite the rapid development of these fields of research and policy, there is no consensus on the definition of well-being or valuation method(s) upon which to base policy evaluations for well-being. This research examines this issue by comparing two methods for valuing the well-being benefits from marine and coastal environments. The first is a more traditional and frequently used preference-based (‘ex-ante’) method, the Contingent Valuation Method. The second is a novel method which relies on psychological states and ‘ex-post’ experiences, the Life Satisfaction Approach. An empirical comparison of the methods was undertaken in the context of assessing the impact of a coastal intervention on the well-being of local residents. This was made possible by a local coastal regeneration project (Teat’s Hill, Plymouth, Devon) and enabled an evaluation before (T1) and after (T2) the regeneration (n=653). A repeat cross-sectional survey was used to value the impact of the regeneration on the well-being of local residents using the two different methods, the Contingent Valuation Method at T1 and the Life Satisfaction Approach across T1 and T2. First, the talk will present the findings from the two methods and compare the well-being estimates derived. Second, it will discuss the complementarity and commensurability of the two methods and highlight avenues for future well-being research. The research presents new findings which have important implications for the ecosystem service agenda and the use of well-being research in environmental policy, planning and decision-making.

The Fish Market at the Bottom of the World: Learning from Sydney Fish Market’s Past and Future
Elspeth Probyn

Fish markets have been the central agora in maritime cities for thousands of years, and yet they remain strangely under-researched. They are fascinating spaces of multiple forms of interaction. In one often noisy and smelly space, they bring together fish buyers and processors, ordinary consumers, and increasingly hordes of tourists – the Sydney Fish Market attracts more tourists than the Great Barrier Reef. Recently, the NSW Government announced that it would spend $250 million to relocate and redevelop the Sydney Fish Market (SFM) starting in 2019. The Danish firm, 3XN, awarded the contract, promises “a working fish market, an amenity for the city, a cultural destination, an urban connector”.
In this paper, I consider Sydney Fish Market as an exemplar of why fish markets are intellectually compelling for their admixture of economics and culture, as being both the market and the market place. The SFM (the largest fish market in the Southern Hemisphere) moved to its present location in Pyrmont, wedged between concrete factories in the 1950s. It has taken decades of haggling to persuade the owners and occupiers to move. In this it is akin to the more well-known Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market which has only just moved after decades of squabbling. Drawing on my ethnographic research and interviews with key players – buyers, fishers, processors, consumers and tourists – I consider how the fish market works to highlight both the anthropogenic crisis of the oceans and fishing as well as the ways it works to produce an important conviviality, an enmeshment of different human and non-human actors.

Marine Cultural Ecosystem Services: the sea as a cultural environment
Niccolò Bassan & Francesco Musco

Human culture and the sea are strictly linked. Indeed, coastal and marine environment provide significant benefits to humans often described as Ecosystem Services (ES). A category of ES identified by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) are Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) that can be defined as “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences”. Cultural benefits derived from experiencing marine ecosystems can be connected to recreation, religion, spiritual enrichment, aesthetic experiences, art, heritage and identity. These cultural elements are important building blocks for human existence and heritage. However, CES suffer from poor characterization or valuation often because of their intangibility. Neglecting cultural values and services in the design of interventions can produce unintended consequences and can impede the achievement of program goals during the planning processes. During planning and managing activities, in fact, these values make an important contribution in the delivering of high level objectives for the sea space, in particular social objectives related to human well-being and quality of life and, as ecological values, cultural values can be threatened by maritime and coastal activities. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) can be a useful tool to address the uncertainty of these ES and help to better manage the cultural value associated to the sea. Presently we still have insufficient knowledge of the entire range of values the sea provides and because of this is common to focus on the economic values provided by the sea (such as fishing, shipping, offshore wind farming and so on), while it is less common to regard the sea as a place defined by cultural meanings and history. Through a literature review and a case study analysis this paper will try to assess this approach in the Gulf of Napoli, Italy.

Assessing non-monetary values of the modern seashore forager
E.S. Morris-Webb, S. Jenkins & F. St.John

In recent years the press has drawn more attention than ever to the ‘foraging’ for wild products in the UK, Europe and around the World. Top chefs have heralded their favourite sustainable foraged foods and celebrities have televised their ‘desert island’ survival experiences. Journalists have explored cities with urban foragers and the health benefits of eating seaweeds picked from British shores. However, this is not a new trend. Humans are hunter gatherers that have collected, or ‘gleaned’ seashore products for millennia. Traditional uses include food, bait, cosmetics, medicines and even fertilisers and kelp ash (for glass manufacture). Rarely do policy makers of developed nations consider this traditional activity as either economically or socially valuable. But in an age where most things we want or need are a few clicks away, why do so many still seek the thrill of finding their own food? Are foragers and wild product gatherers simply filling their purses and fridges, or is there a deeper meaning to foraging that adds something to the modern gatherer’s well-being, or takes them back to their ancestral or cultural roots? How important are these rights of passage to modern coastal communities, and how essential will they be to future generations? This research finds the modern seashore gatherers of Wales and explores methods to help them find their voice to express what gathering means to them. Mixed methods utilising questionnaires, standard subjective well-being scales and semi-structured interviews provide an insight into the demographic of the modern seashore gatherer, explore what they collect and reveal what their activities really mean to them.


Niccolò Bassan

University Iuav of Venice & CORILA
avatar for Rebecca Shellock

Rebecca Shellock

PhD Researcher, Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the University of Exeter

Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30 CEST
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam