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Wednesday, June 26 • 15:00 - 16:30
Coastal zone planning

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Chaired by: Karrasch, L.

Groundwater salinisation in North West Germany: a creeping catastrophe?
Leena Karrasch & Bernd Siebenhüner

Groundwater salinisation is one of the major problems coastal societies are facing as one consequence of sea level rise and it can be exacerbated by increasing freshwater demands. Saltwater intrusion is a slow process that unfolds with a strong delay. It can be described as a “creeping catastrophe”, often overseen by and resulting in comparatively low awareness of society and higher management levels in coastal areas of North Western Germany. Current management of groundwater salinization focuses mainly on technical response measures, while socio-economic aspects and precautionary measures are viewed as subordinate. How can participation and governance arrangements increase the likelihood of acting on a creeping catastrophe such as groundwater salinisation in terms of perception, agenda-setting and problem-solving? A two-phase participatory process (expert interviews and workshop) including actors from institutions and authorities on local, regional and national level contributed to identifying societal challenges of groundwater salinisation. Therefore, complex interactions between water management, human activities and natural processes, and effective and efficient ways to manage and protect groundwater resources have been addressed. This paper focuses on the actors’ awareness of groundwater salinisation and how it is linked to different levels of decision-making. Demonstrated are the most vulnerable areas in East Frisia and Frisia as well as the main drivers leading to groundwater salinisation from the actors’ perspectives. Furthermore, technical, non-technical and institutional adaptation options will be presented. Conclusions will then be drawn how knowledge and awareness can contribute to change actor’s perceptions and perspectives on the often overlooked problem of groundwater salinisation.

Impact assessments in Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning
Patrick Berg Sørdahl

Coastal zone planning in Norway must since 2015 include impact assessments of proposed aquaculture areas. The assessments should ensure that possible environmental and societal effects of a proposed establishment are taken into consideration. However, no standard method of conducting impact assessments exists, so how the assessments are carried out varies between different coastal zone planning processes. For efficiency in the prioritizations and trade-offs made, the assessment methods should be harmonized both across proposed aquaculture areas and different coastal zone planning processes.

This paper analyses impact assessments in two intermunicipal coastal zone planning processes in Norway, involving 13 and 5 municipalities, and 109 and 34 aquaculture areas respectively. In the first process, 13 municipal planners did the assessments, while an independent consultant did the assessments in the other process. We analyse if the impact assessments consider impacts of aquaculture more or less objectively, for impacts onto nature’s diversity, cultural heritage and cultural environment, pollution, and human society.

Further, we analyse what interests and resources are considered most relevant, highest valued and most impacted if aquaculture should be allowed. Nature’s diversity, particularly wild salmon, landscape, fisheries and employment are the major ones. Lastly, we do a probit analysis of how prioritisation of the proposed aquaculture areas is done. The consultant was highly consistent in using sum consequence as the critierion. The municipal planners were overall less consistent, and extreme impacts mattered more. However, in the municipal councils’ decisions, more of the consultant’s recommendations were overturned than the planners’ recommendations on proposed aquaculture areas.

Understanding governance dynamics on the coast – identifying the barriers and bottlenecks to transformative change in Wales, UK 
Meghan Alexander, Emma McKinley, Rhoda Ballinger & Angus Garbutt

Arguably climate change and other associated ‘wicked problems’ demand transformative change in governance to better accommodate uncertainty and respond to the dynamic nature of these types of problems and diversity of stakeholders involved. However, change is often to slow to take effect. In Wales (UK), there is a strong policy aspiration towards ‘doing things differently’, which has been asserted with the recent enactment of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015. The Act requires all public bodies to demonstrate the Five Ways of Working, including i) prevention, ii) integration, iii) collaboration, iv) involvement of all stakeholders and v) long-term perspective, and further places a well-being duty of public bodies to contribute to the achievement of seven national well-being goals. The Act is intended to unite different actors under a shared framework and vision for the future to cut across traditional policy silos, however this transition is not without its difficulties. This is further exacerbated at the coast, where the intersection of land-sea governance is inherently complex and often fragmented.   
This presentation draws from research conducted as part of the interdisciplinary CoastWEB project, which examines the contribution that coasts make to human health and well-being. Focusing on Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management (FCERM) governance, this research performed stakeholder interviews with policymakers and practitioners operating at national to local scales, alongside in-depth policy and legal analysis, and a stakeholder workshop. We identify the important role that policy champions and ‘brokering’ actors play in facilitating effective governance, while also revealing remaining barriers to the Five Ways of Working. These insights informed a number of recommendations co-developed during a stakeholder workshop. Crucially, we highlight the importance of initial ‘quick wins’ to help energise change and progressively embed deeper transformations in governance. 

Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30 CEST
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam