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Thursday, June 27 • 13:00 - 14:30
Scrutinizing aquaculture

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Chaired by: Putten, I.

The link between rapid industry development and disease management in the Chilean salmon industry
Ingrid van Putten, Amara Steven, Shane Richards, Eriko Hoshino & Beth Fulton

Chile is the second largest exporter of Salmon after Norway. Salmon aquaculture in Chile has developed rapidly and it contributes significantly to the regional and national economy. Horizontal and vertical integration of the industry has meant the structure of the aquaculture sector is now quite different than when it first commenced. In the past decade, there have been a number of large scale disease outbreaks that have had severe economic impacts. On farm disease management and reporting requirements have changed partly as a consequence of these past disease events. From an environmental, animal health, and economic perspective effective sanitary management is key to the success of individual farms. We use a bio-economic model to assess the effect of increased production and falling prices; different sanitary management; reduced mortality; varying production phase starting dates, and the effect of an extreme event for Atlantic salmon, Coho salmon, and Rainbow trout in the two main growing regions in Chile. We discuss the aspects of the human dimension of disease management in aquaculture in Chile and consider the implications of rapid development and change in the structure of the industry.

Navigating through a sea of indicators: The impression, implementation and impact of sustainability certification for salmon aquaculture
Vilde Steiro Amundsen

​Despite the proliferation of the concept of ‘sustainability’, there lacks a consensus as to what it actually entails and how it can be accomplished. Still, it is often spoken of as if it were a specific goal to be achieved through environmental conservation and ‘the social stuff’. As with other all-embracing umbrella terms (e.g. globalization and culture), its actual meaning emerges through the content that the concept is given when operationalized. In the SustainFish project, we have explored an important source of content for sustainability in aquaculture: sustainability certification.
Certification schemes develop standards consisting of criteria in the form of indicators, with which aquaculture companies need to comply in order to become certified. These indicators must be measurable, transferable and comparable, allowing the same standard to be applied across different companies and countries. While standards emanate from the idea of objectivity, it is important to keep in mind that they are both made and managed by people. By employing standardization as a means towards sustainability, an operationalized understanding of the concept is formed through different stages of translation.
Firstly, translating an idea into indicators involves stakeholders with different motives navigating the many challenges and tradeoffs of ‘sustainable aquaculture’, resulting in an array of standards that together produce an impression of sustainability. This is further translated through the implementation of the standards, where the aquaculture companies must interpret and adapt them to each organizational and geographical context. Lastly, the meaning of sustainability is translated through the impact of certification, as the implemented measures will necessarily bring about different outcomes depending on the local environmental, social and economic conditions.
Exploring the impression, implementation and impact of these standards provides valuable insight into the role of certification in making the aquaculture industry more sustainable, whatever that may entail.

Salmon aquaculture: environmental protection, food safety, escape prevention, animal welfare and disease control… um … oh yeah, worker health and safety?
Edgar McGuinness & Barbara Neis

​The expansion and development of aquaculture capacity is a cornerstone of future plans to secure protein supplies for the growing world population. The largest growth sector within aquaculture in the Western world is the cultivation of salmonids, or more specifically Atlantic salmon, with production spreading to new countries and locations and expanding rapidly to increase production rates. Aquaculture research and development, including in governance, have largely focused on concerns about potential environmental harm, food safety issues, and animal welfare. Responsible pest and disease control, and the prevention of fish escapes have become priorities in the salmon aquaculture sector in particular. Less attention has been paid to documenting occupational health hazards, and to the prevention of injuries, illnesses and fatalities among aquaculture workers. A recent global review of aquaculture occupational health and safety (OHS) done for the FAO has highlighted a lack of research globally and the need for greater injury and illness prevention in the sector.
Norway is the largest producer of farmed salmon, and has also become the largest exporter of technologies, methodologies and indeed aquaculture companies, worldwide. Norway has a very highly developed regulatory framework covering its aquaculture industry, including health and safety. Despite this, Norwegian research shows that aquaculture is the second most dangerous industry in the country. This research presents a comparative analysis of aquaculture OHS regulatory regimes, in Norway and multiple Canadian provinces with a focus on salmon aquaculture operations. It will compare the depth and breadth of aquaculture legislation relevant to OHS and highlight areas for future improvement within health and safety in the expanding Canadian salmon aquaculture industry. Key findings demonstrate an absence of legislative control over many potentially hazardous aspects of the Canadian aquaculture work environment, from the application of risk assessments and safety management, to workboat and cage design.

Ocean Stories: Framing the sea for management
Sarah Wise

Global oceans are changing at an unprecedented pace challenging the ways we know and interact with the sea. Differing epistemologies inform and frame decision-making processes, as well as the ways we value and use the ocean. In the Arctic, western science and resources managers have turned to indigenous and traditional knowledges (I&TK) to explore changes in the marine ecosystem. Indigenous Alaskans have been profoundly connected to their land and seascapes for centuries, and have gathered deep-rooted knowledge reflecting generations of environmental observation and engagement. A growing body of literature reveals increased interest and ongoing effort to collect I&TK (on marine mammals, sea ice, and increasingly, climate change); however there remain difficulties to incorporating divergent knowledges into management processes, including epistemological differences, communication of various knowledge, and equity issues. How knowledge is perceived and represented among scientists, community members, and policy makers intersects with questions of equity and representation: whose knowledge is selected as representative and whose may be obscured? Within a U.S. national fisheries context, how can multiple knowledge systems be integrated into policy? Is it possible to manage the sea based on multiple—and at times, conflicting—perspectives? This project focuses on two ongoing NOAA fisheries research and management projects (the Federal Bering Sea Fisheries Management Plan and The Oral Histories of Alaska Native fisherwomen in Bristol Bay). Using text analysis and conceptual modeling methods, the research explores barriers and areas for convergence to incorporate I&TK into fisheries management in the Bering Sea. Additional research is necessary to better understand epistemological differences and issues of equity and within knowledge hierarchies as it relates to resource management. This work seeks to contribute to social science research on knowledge systems, ecos

Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30 CEST
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam