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Monday, June 24
 

18:00

Pre-Conference Reception & Conference Registration (along with policy day)
All participants to the conference are welcome to register and join the pre-conference reception on Monday evening.

Monday June 24, 2019 18:00 - 20:00
De Brug' / 'The Bridge' Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam
 
Tuesday, June 25
 

08:30

Conference Registration continued
Tuesday June 25, 2019 08:30 - 09:30
Singel 411, 1012 WN Amsterdam Old Lutheran Church / Aula

09:30

Conference Opening and Keynote Prof. Dr. Svein Jentoft
Life Above Water: Small-scale fisheries as a human experience
Svein Jentoft

“Life under water” is UN Sustainable Development Goal No. 14, under which small-scale fisheries fall. Yet, most of what is happening in smallscale fisheries, and certainly those things that catch the eye of the social scientist, are taking place above water – on the water and by the water. Small-scale fishers make their living off the fish that swims in the ocean, but they do so with the lives they construct for themselves and with others on land. Therefore, small-scale fishers depend on their communities as much as they depend on their boats and gear. It is as members of communities that fishers acquire the energy, motivation, and meaning they need
to carry out their work. For this reason, the social sciences of fisheries had the community as a unit of analysis. However, fisheries communities are not isolated from what happening outside them. Consequently, as social scientists specializing of small-scale fisheries, we cannot limit ourselves to communities but must broaden our focus to forces at higher scales. Still, I argue that it is important that we do not lose communities out of sight, because if we do, we also lose the sight of small-scale fisheries.

Tuesday June 25, 2019 09:30 - 11:00
Singel 411, 1012 WN Amsterdam Old Lutheran Church / Aula

11:00

Boat to Main Conference Venue
Please follow the volunteers. They will guide the participants to the boat.

Tuesday June 25, 2019 11:00 - 12:00
Restaurant d'Vijff Vlieghen Spuistraat 294-302, 1012 VX Amsterdam

12:00

Lunch + Conference Registration continued
Tuesday June 25, 2019 12:00 - 13:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Can international voluntary instruments contribute towards more equitable governance of coasts and oceans? The case of the SSF Guidelines.
Chaired by: Franz, N.

Linking the SSF Guidelines to global and regional processes
Nicole Franz
 
The Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines) have been endorsed by the FAO Committee on Fisheries in 2014, after a participatory development process. The participatory development process involved different partners, including governments, small-scale fisheries actors and their organizations, academia, regional organizations and others. It included the organization of a number of regional and national workshops to gather input for this new international instrument that provides a global framework for sustainable small-scale fisheries. This contribution will share insights on how this participatory process has contributed to embedding the SSF Guidelines in the strategies, policies and initiatives of a number of regional organizations. It will also explore the connection to the SSF Guidelines to global processes, in particular to the Sustainable Development Goals. The challenges and opportunities related to the implementation of an internationally agreed but voluntary instrument will be analysed in this context.


Remodeling Sri Lanka’s National Fisheries Policy: Incorporating SSF Guidelines for securing sustainable small scale fisheries
Oscar Amarasinghe
 
Sri Lanka Forum for Small Scale Fisheries (SLFSSF) embarked on a process to implement the FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small Scale Fisheries in the context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (herein after referred to as the ‘Guidelines’) during July 2018 to May 2019, with assistance from International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), as part of FAO efforts towards Global Implementation of the Guidelines. Following the FAO Project Results Matrix, the SLFSSF adopted a methodology that included i. Sensitizing workshop for state actors; ii. Development of communication tools for community stakeholders; iii. Stakeholder meetings in various parts of the country where discussions were crried out on the relevance of the Guidelines; iv. Assessment of current fisheries policy to identify changes required in the context of incorporating the relevant Guidelines and finally, v. Policy workshop to discuss and agree on the revised National Fisheries Policy.
A number of very important issues which had not received much attention in the earlier policy processes emerged from the stakeholder discussions which were based on a diversity of themes that underlined the Guidelines. Among them, the need for cross sectoral collaboration and institutional coordination in coastal resources management, and the establishment of co-management platforms which are integrated, inclusive, participatory and holistic in nature were strongly emphasized. Protection of the legitimate tenure rights of fishers to land, water and fish resources, the need to demarcate the boundaries in the coastal zone, social protection through effective pension schemes, the need to ensure fair work conditions for fishers and fishworkers, reducing post-harvest losses, promoting fisheries insurance schemes through state-community partnerships, minimizing gender equalities through removal of wage discrepancies and higher representation of women in decision making platforms, providing communities with affordable access to basic social services, empowering community organisations and capacity building of state and community actors for participating in resource conservation and management decision making etc. formed the other important propositions which were to be incorporated into the national fisheries policy. While the whole process of SSF Guideline implementation went on smoothly as expected, one of the setbacks was the insufficient time given to community stakeholders to study the SSF guidelines. It was disclosed that there was a mismatch between National Plan of Action and National Policy Guidelines. It was thus proposed to continue with the SSF Guidelines implementation process further towards the preparation of a draft action plan based on the revised policy document.


Can academia support fisher movements in their effort to gain more political power in the sector?
Naseegh Jaffer

“[Academics] should enhance the capacity of small-scale fishing communities in order to enable them to participate in decision-making processes” - chapter 12 of the SSF Guidelines. 
I speak as a representative of the World Forum of Fisher Peoples representing some 10 million fisher peoples worldwide. I will argue that states, academia and other actors have failed to support fisher movements on their own terms and conditions. Some positive initiatives can be highlighted but considering the vast amounts of resources (including funding from governments and private foundations) used on development programmes and research on small-scale fisheries, we can conclude that only a tiny fraction of those resources are made available to movements themselves. If academics buy into the spirit of the SSF guidelines – with emphasis on ‘capacity development’ – we must explore how they can best contribute to the empowerment of fisher movements?

Speakers


Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Coastal landscapes and childhood(s) transition accross three generations and four countries. (1)
Chaired by: Kjørholt, A.

Coastal landscapes and childhood(s)in transition across three generations and four countries (1)
Anne Trine Kjørholt
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

Contemporary coastal childhoods are connected to growing up in societies characterized by rapid transition with regard to economies and working life, livelihood, identity formation and intergenerational relations. Knowledge and skills, transmitted from one generation to the next through practices in everyday life is to a great extent replaced by schooling as the valued form of education. Thus, we witness shifting and competing forms of knowledge production over time. There is a danger of both deskilling, and of a devaluation of life-skills, practical, and environmental local knowledge that is of vital importance to maintain and further develop sustainable livelihoods in different coastal communities. Furthermore, children and young people’s lives are affected byincreasing individualisationWhile children some decades ago were brought up to be of use for their families and communities, they are today brought up to ‘be themselves’. Many of the contemporary coastal societies are ethnically diverse, arising questions of inclusion, exclusion and (dis)connectedness. These and other changes have wide-ranging implications for present everyday life and future development of sustainable coastal societies. In this panel we explore coastal landscapes and childhood(s)in transition across three generations and five countries. All the participants are part of the interdisciplinary research project; Valuing the past, sustaining the future. Education, knowledge and identity across three generations in coastal communities, at NTNU, funded by Research Council Norway.

This panel is part of a series of 2 sessions. It includes:
1. Paper presentations: 7 paper presentations+1 discussant
2. A round table entitled: Coastal childhoods in a comparative perspective. Young peoples’ experiences and perspectives. Presentation and dialogue among researchers from 4 countries (60 min).


-  Place for Learning? A three generational perspective on formal education, identity and change in small coastal communities of Ireland. 
Aoife Crummy & Dympna Devine

For the first time in history, more of the world’s population are now located in urban rather than rural places. Ireland aligns with this global trend seeing over 60% of its population now living in urban and peri-urban zones. Global rural landscapes have re-structured from productionist to consumptivist sites of multifunctionaliy, with impacts moving beyond the local and national container. With 40% of the Irish populace living within only 5km of the coast, small coastal communities traditionally reliant on maritime and agricultural forms of labour have experienced major socio-economic and cultural transitions. Focusing on children and youth, what kind of career opportunities are made available for young people within these coastal communities and what is the role of the Irish education system in facilitating this? By providing children and young people with the ‘best’ opportunities are we ultimately bestowing on them the credentials needed to take flight elsewhere? Prompted by studies carried in Atlantic Canada, this paper explores the links between formal education and outward migration patterns of youth in coastal communities. Locating the study within both time and space, it draws on data from two Irish field-sites, capturing the changing educational experience and values over three generations.


-  The sea, the boat and the fish. The shifting landscape of childhood and knowledge in a Norwegian coastal community
Anne Trine Kjørholt

Growing up in a Norwegian coastal town in the 19th century. Work and intergenerational relations. The paper is about how young boys growing up in a coastal town in Norway in the 19th century learned skills and became sailors aboard on a ship at a very young age. Young boys hired aboard together with their fathers. Practical knowledge was transfered from the one generation to the next.


-  “I want to be a fisherman". Learning from the past, imagining the future. Observations from a viable fishing community in North Norway
Harald B Broch

In this presentation focus is on a Norwegian fishing community where the recruitment to the coastal fisheries still is good. What does this take, How do the young fishermen explain their choice of profession. The social anthropological project started in 2006 and even when revisited in 2019 young the situation was similar. More youngsters seem interested in the profession.


-  ‘Fixing your gaze on the sea. Young People, Knowledge and Intergenerational Relations in the Faroe Islands. 
Firouz Gaini

This paper, looking at a village community through the eyes of its youth, aims to examine and analyse the (local) knowledge, identity and intra- and intergenerational relations of people from a coastal community in time of societal shift. Focusing on the place and the sea, our question is – what is the social/cultural meaning of the sea and the coastal landscape for identity and belonging? Based on their everyday lives, family histories, and narratives of past-present-future continuities, we review young people’s sense of ‘belonging’ to place in a temporal (historic) context. This paper – at the intersection of island studies, youth studies and rural sociology – is part of the international research project ‘Valuing the past, sustaining the future. Education, knowledge and identity across three generations in coastal community’ (2016-2021). It is based on 35 qualitative biographical interviews (from 2017) with members of 13 families representing three generations. The Faroe Islands, a North Atlantic island community heavily dependent on fisheries, represent a society in transition facing similar challenges as many other islands and small-scale societies, regarding out-migration, economic restructuration and relative ‘remoteness’ (‘islandness’). This paper puts emphasis on children and young people’s reinterpretation and reinvention of the sea as point of identification in a time with strong processes of globalization and individualisation influencing youth life. The presumption of the paper is that we need to rethink the human impact on local development and societal revitalization by putting young people in focus: How do contemporary girls and boys envision the future of their islands?



Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Illegality at Sea: stocks decline, slavery and social practice.
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment.

Chair: Peter VanderGeest

Labour relations in commercial fisheries
Peter VanderGeest

Dangerous, Illegal, and Persistent: A case study of compressor fishing in a Philippine barangay
Hannah R. Bassett

A dilemma in catch ban regulation on lobsters, crabs, swimming crabs in Banyuwangi, Indonesia through the lenses of social practice perspective
Merdeka Agus Saputra & Gert Spaargaren

Fish Stock Declines as an Incentive for the Use of Modern Slavery on Fishing Vessels
Jessica Sparks


Speakers
avatar for Hannah Bassett

Hannah Bassett

PhD Student, University of Washington, Seattle
Dive fisheries, political ecology of small-scale fisheries, impacts of marine climate change on people, Philippines, California
avatar for Merdeka Agus Saputra

Merdeka Agus Saputra

Executive Operation, Alune
I am a marine enthusiast who is looking for PhD about Marine Governance.



Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Marine pollution.
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment. 

Chaired by: Van Leeuwen, J.

Improving the existing multi-stakeholder networking for new marine litter issues
Eka Higuchi & Naohiro Go

Brainstorming a social scientific research agenda for the Blue Economy
Judith van Leeuwen & Michelle Voyer

Current Status of Marine Plastic Pollution
Yu Ao


Towards a broader understanding of standardized methodologies in marine plastics monitoring: Place-based, participatory monitoring of marine plastics on a rocky subarctic island off of Canada’s east coast
Jessica Melvin, Justine Ammendolia, France Liboiron, Max Liboiron, Alexandra Hayward & Madeline Bury

The policy implications of framing marine litter in the Netherlands
Judith R. Floor & Ansje J. Löhr


Speakers


Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Marine Science Cultures. Societal Contestations and Transnational Entanglements of European Marine Sciences
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment. 

Chaired by: Hornidge, A.K. and Kehrt, C.

Marine Science Cultures. Societal Contestations and Transnational Entanglements of European Marine Sciences
Anna-Katharina Hornidge & Dr. Christian Kehrt, 
Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) & University of Bremen & University of Braunschweig.

Marine Science Cultures. An introductory Overview into the Topic
Anna-Katharina Hornidge

Maybe Never Again Krill“. Technocratic resource visions and the limits of expert cultures
Christian Kehrt

Getting history onboard – thirty years of using the past for future ocean management.
Poul Holm

Theoretical and empirical dis/connects: understanding depth and movement across the science – social-science interface
Kimberley Peters

From the Waterwolf to the Sand Engine: Living with Waves in the Netherlands
Stefan Helmreich


Speakers
avatar for Christian Kehrt

Christian Kehrt

professor of history, TU Braunschweig
polar regions, cold war, aviation, resource politics, transnational resource spaces



Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Marine spatial planning. (1)
* panel description and paper abstract in attachment. 

Chaired by: Steins, N.

Framing community-based decision-making and planning for aquaculture through a participatory Marine Spatial Planning approach
Patricia Manuel, Maggie Yet & Bertrum H. MacDonald

Balancing offshore wind energy, nature conservation and food production: a community of practice for multi-use in the Dutch North Sea
Nathalie A. Steins, Jeroen Veraart, Judith Klostermann, Marnix Poelman

Using Game Theory to understand Decision Making for Nature Based Flood Defences
Heleen Vreugdenhil & Stephanie Janssen

Success and failure factors when engaging stakeholders and scientists: contrasting coastal case studies 
F.M. d’Hont, J.H. Slinger

Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes: Using Marine Protected Areas to Investigate Potential Socio-Ecological Impacts of Climate Change in Marine Spatial Planning
Talya ten Brink, Tim Cashion, Anne Mook, Tu Ngoc Nguyen, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes,  Sarah Roberts, 


Speakers
avatar for Nathalie Steins

Nathalie Steins

Wageningen Marine Research
Social scientist with international and multi-perspective experience in sustainable fisheries management. International fisheries management work experience includes Ireland, United Kingdom, USA, Suriname, Guyana, Myanmar and Kenya. Interested in: marine common pool resource management... Read More →



Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Monitoring and digitization in the marine domain.
Chaired by: Kraan, M.

Operationalizing and guiding sustainability in aquaculture. Web-portal with sustainability indicators for salmon farming in Norway.
Eirik Mikkelsen, Kine Mari Karlsen, Roy Robertsen, Ulf Winther & Roger Richardsen

Sustainability is an elusive term, yet one that is widely used, not least in policy documents. This is true also regarding aquaculture in Norway. The Norwegian Aquaculture Act has the term as part of its stated purpose (§1), and the parliamentary white paper that lead to the latest major change in management regime for the industry had the term in its title. As the management and public policies for Norwegian aquaculture include both economic, social and environmental dimensions of aquaculture, and also ambitions and arrangements for growth, it fit well into the policy paradigm of blue and sustainable growth. This presentation will introduce a web-portal with sustainability indicators for Norwegian salmon and trout farming, and discuss how indicators there relate to existing and possible management rules and regulations. This will be analysed together with results from a survey on which sustainability themes that people in Norway are particularly concerned about regarding salmon aquaculture.


Automatic Identification Services and Maritime Rescue
Terence Rudolph

What happens when small, unsafe and unregistered boats loaded with migrants come up against the massive cargo and tanker ships that sustain the global economy? My central research question focuses on identifying the factors that influence decisions by commercial ship captains to rescue, or not to rescue, migrants on the Mediterranean Sea. Semi-structured interviews with 24 maritime professionals formed the basis of this research project. These interviews provide insights into data gathered from an empirical method for tracking commercial ships that have been involved in a rescue. Information collected from freedom of information requests (FOI’s) provides, in some cases, the names of commercial ships that have rescued migrants in the central Mediterranean. It provides important empirical data and categories of analysis for humanitarian maritime rescue efforts. The use of Automatic Identification Services —which is mandated by the International Convention of the Law of Sea— allow vessel traffic services VTS to identify and locate a ships, position, permits, course and speed at sea. Humanitarian organizations, state-sponsored security organizations, the commercial shipping industry and human smugglers employ these geographic surveillance technologies. They render the human geography of the most deadly contemporary migratory routes more visible.



Acceptance of aquaculture growth by non-aquaculture industry stakeholders
Jahn Petter Johnsen & Signe A. Sonvisen

There is a vision of a fivefold increase in Norwegian aquaculture production by 2050 (the 2050-vision). Given that the ocean and the coastal zone is not mare nullius, there is an ongoing discussion of the effects of this growth on other ocean and coastal industries. This paper explores the social acceptance of the 2050-vision by exploring how the vision is received by non-aquaculture industry stakeholders. As social acceptance is a discursive phenomenon constructed in a relational system of meanings, ideas, knowledge and experience, this paper studies discursively how knowledge, interests and expression related to the 2050-vision is expressed in policy documents in stakeholder organizations.


Speakers
avatar for Marloes Kraan

Marloes Kraan

Researcher, Wageningen University & Research
MAREApplied marine social scienceFisheries behaviour, food security, cultural heritageInterdisciplinarity
avatar for Eirik Mikkelsen

Eirik Mikkelsen

NOFIMA
Work with social and socio-economic aspects of aquaculture and fisheries, including marine and coastal zone planning and management.


Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Rethinking tuna governance.
Chaired by: Bush, S.

Rethinking tuna governance in Indonesia

Indonesia is one of the most important tuna fishing countries in the world. At the same time, the country faces a range of challenges in effectively governing both the sustainability of fishing activity and ensuring the sustainability of tuna dependent livelihoods. The three papers presented in this panel argue that in order to achieve both the ecological and social goals of tuna fisheries new governance approaches are needed. More specifically, the papers demonstrate the value of engaging the social relations that shape the use and reporting of tuna fishing practices. By focusing on these social relations we argue that more dynamic, informational and spatially sensitive approaches for fisheries governance can emerge that more effectively respond to the everyday social realities of catching tuna.


Towards a risk-based approach for governing tuna fisheries in Indonesia
Simon R. Bush, Hilde Toonen, Paul van Zwieten and Megan Bailey

Tuna fisheries in Indonesia are amongst the most diverse and complex in the world. However, the ongoing sustainability of these and other fisheries is questionable given up to 38% of Indonesian seafood products to the major markets like the US come from illegal and unreported sources. To ensure the ongoing contribution of these fisheries to local and national economies in Indonesia new approaches are needed to govern the sustainability of these resources fishery. Central to the risk posed by IUU fishing is the spatially proliferation of Fish Attraction Devices (FADs). There is no clear record of how many exist in Indonesian waters, and government regulation on numbers and their location remains unenforced. In light of the perceived failure of the state to govern FADs, a range of new technologies for surveilling fishing activity have been put in place by both private companies and NGOs. However, what potential the use of these systems hold for the improved governance of tuna fisheries, however, remains unclear. This paper explores the use of these new technologies and informational actors in moving towards a risk-based approach to management and assesses whether the new modes of surveillance these technologies enable lead to legitimate modes of tuna fisheries governance in Indonesia.
 

Drawing invisible lines: Boundary making and fish attraction devices in marine space
Rizkyana Dipananda and Simon R. Bush

This paper explores the governance of Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) through various arrangements performed by different boundary making process. FADs are floating devices that are used by small and large scale fishers alike to increase the efficiency of finding and harvesting pelagic (oceanic) and neretic (coastal) tuna species. FADs are controversial in Indonesia because their widespread use is largely unregulated, unreported and thought to underpin the overexploitation of tuna as well as associated species such as sea-turtles and sharks. FADs are managed by the Indonesian government through their relative location to jurisdictional marine boundaries. This jurisdictional approach to management has, however, proven ineffective because of weak enforcement. In this paper we argue that the weakness of jurisdiction based management is also related to a fundamental neglect of the social relations that structure the everyday use of FADs. By engaging with these relations, including the patron-client relationships that enable access to vessels and FADs themselves, we argue that an alternative understanding of how marine space is used and can be governed emerges.
 

Towards a more Dynamic and Relational understanding of FAD fishing in Indonesia
Zac Edwards, Sietze Vellema and Simon R. Bush

In Indonesia, fish aggregation devices (FADs) inherently elicit competing rule systems that assume regulatory authority over access to the tuna that are aggregated below the devices. Understanding how these separate rule systems interact to enact the rule changing processes that shape the access arrangements to FAD associated tuna is an important knowledge gap facing researchers and policymakers alike. However, previously developed institutional analyses proved largely insufficient in accounting for the complexity and dynamism of such rule changing processes. In response, the Rule Systems Interface framework was formulated for the purpose of this research, building upon Ostrom’s study of rule systems by integrating key Institutional Ethnographic concepts and methods. This approach allowed for the examination of how rule changing processes are mediated in an amorphous manner via the interface between separate rule systems. Through employing this new approach this research was able to pinpoint the more successful methods employed by external actors in successfully influencing the rules-in-use of FAD fishermen. Thus, this paper provides a new type of institutional analysis that better engages with the dynamic and relational aspects of rule changing processes, and can help to diagnose the potentially more effective approaches to instigating behavioural change amongst resource-users.

Speakers
avatar for Rizkyana Dipananda

Rizkyana Dipananda

PhD Student, University of Amsterdam
Just recently graduated from Wageningen University and Research majoring in International Development with specific interest around tuna governance. Currently enrol as PhD student at UvA working on fish consumption practices, small fish trade network and poor people food & nutrition... Read More →
ZE

Zacari Edwards

Projects Coordinator, IPNLF


Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Shaping and regulating coastal and marine tourism experiences. (1)
Chaired by: Dearden, P.

Toward valuable weather and sea ice services for the marine Arctic
Maaike Knol & Jelmer Jeuring

The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average. This has severe consequences for the natural environment. At the same time, a transforming environment – in particular retreating sea ice - allows for an increase in maritime activities in areas such as around Svalbard, with a rapid growth in cruise tourism and a northward move of fisheries. These activities take place in a dynamic environment where weather and ice conditions can change rapidly, and where information about conditions might be difficult to access or lack necessary qualities needed to make decisions across temporal scale-levels. Hence, there is an increased need for salient weather and sea-ice services. Since ‘salience’ can only result from co-productive processes of sensemaking, we aim to explore user-producer interfaces of weather and sea ice services for the marine Arctic.

We describe a two-stage methodological approach. The first stage consists of a series of in-depth, qualitative interviews with personnel from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute to explore dynamics of day-to-day and strategic interactions between service providers and their maritime users. For the second stage, a participatory mapping survey was designed and spread among experienced captains and navigators to achieve enhanced understanding of how services are used in contextual planning and operations and the challenges that arise herein. We present preliminary combined results of the two studies. This includes insight into users’ contextual needs and how these relate to challenges and opportunities raised by meteorologists. We discuss how the potentially transformative role of users’ local knowledge and observations might enhance the salience of weather and sea ice services in the Arctic, while shifting the dynamics between users and service providers. In doing so, we reflect upon the performative role of our participatory method and the central role of meteorologists’ perspectives herein.


Swamping: How social media is rendering traditional coastal marine wildlife tourism management approaches obsolete.
Philip Dearden

Coastal marine wildlife tourism can provide an effective alternative to more extractive livelihoods for achieving conservation goals in many settings. However success is predicated upon the ability of managers to assess site and target species characteristics and establish objectives, indicators and standards to ensure that negative environmental impacts do not occur at the site. Recent evidence from Southeast Asia suggests that this rationale approach is being swamped in many instances by the very rapid increases in visitation associated with the speed of communication among large audiences permitted by social media. Sites are being overwhelmed and suffering significant negative impacts before managers have opportunity to intervene. This paper outlines traditional approaches and provides examples of such swamping effects in both Thailand and the Philippines. In both countries, impacts became so severe that the Prime Ministers had to become involved in abruptly closing all visitation to several sites until new management approaches could be devised. In Thailand some ecological recovery has already been observed at such sites although legal challenges continue to block needed management interventions for more sustainable tourism models to be implemented. The paper illustrates the importance of changes over time in management approaches and some of the current and future challenges facing managers of sites where conservation outcomes are expected.


Mapping and documenting coastal and marine recreation and tourism– the Danish approach
Berit C. Kaae & Anton S. Olafsson

The Danish marine waters and 8,750 km coastlines include diverse and attractive landscapes/seascapes and provide a multitude of coastal and marine recreation opportunities for recreationists and tourists. Activities include diverse maritime-oriented mobilities from shoreline activities enjoying the sea, in-water activities, underwater activities , above-water, and on-water activities.
Our challenge was to map and document these highly diverse activities at national level to provide documentation and spatial mapping of the sector for inclusion into maritime spatial planning (MSP). Two national studies were undertaken to collect national marine-oriented recreation data: A crowdsource-based survey using an online PPGIS-mapping tool allowing respondents to map places of coastal and marine recreation and identify key facts about their activity and the site. Secondly, this mapping tool was used in combination with a national representative survey of the Danish adult population with 10,291 valid responses. These studies collected in-depth knowledge of 92 coastal and marine-oriented recreation activities grouped in 16 main types as well as nationwide spatial mapping. Approx. 16,000 recreation sites were mapped. We perceive outdoor recreation and tourism to be two ends of a spectrum: 1) local recreation in the home municipality, 2) day-visits by one-day tourists participation in recreation activities outside their municipality and 3) tourism - where coastal and marine recreation activities are undertaken while staying overnight outside the home municipality (25 % in our data). Results show that 77.6 percent of the adult population has participated in water-oriented recreation within the past year and that activities are widespread and highly diverse. Our data was triangulated with AIS data on recreational boating to better include the linear maritime mobilities. Overall our approaches provide a valid documentation and mapping at national level that could be relevant in other countries.




Tuesday June 25, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

14:30

Coffee and Tea Break
Tuesday June 25, 2019 14:30 - 15:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Aquaculture and the ocean frontier.
* panel description and paper abstract in attachment. 

Chaired by: Mather, C.

Aquaculture and the ocean frontier
The idea that the ocean represents a new ‘frontier’ for economic growth and development is back on the agenda of academics and policy makers. In this session we are interested in critically assessing the concept of frontier in relation to aquaculture. We do so by engaging with a literature on resource extraction that uses frontier as an analytical and conceptual device. In this writing, frontiers are understood as relational zones of economy, nature and society. They are dynamic spaces that disrupt existing institutional orders and involve the imposition of new property regimes and new forms of commodification and resource exploitation. Given these transformations, frontiers are frequently sites of economic and political struggles over space and access to resources. Using the term frontier as an analytical device provides an interesting and potentially productive way of thinking about global aquaculture development.

Literature/papers presentations:

- The production of fishy spaces: codifying containment in Newfoundland salmonid aquaculture
Ignace Schoot

- Promised Frontiers: Ocean Economies and Aquaculture in Canada
Christine Knott and Charlie Mather

- Acceptance of aquaculture growth by non-aquaculture industry stakeholders 
Jahn-Petter Johnsen,  Signe A. Sønvisen 

- The Aquaculture Governance Index: An Introduction

Sake R. L. Kruk*, Hilde Toonen & Simon R. Bush





Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Beyond Nature and Culture: Ralational perspectives on the Wadden Sea landscape.
* panel description and paper abstract in attachment. 

Chaired by: Walsh, C. & Döring, M.

Beyond Nature and Culture: Relational perspectives on the Wadden Sea landscape 
Dr. Cormac Walsh & Dr. Martin Döring

Dynamic heritage narratives as sea levels rise: The role of the past in Wadden Sea climate adaptation
Linde Egberts & Svava Riesto 

A diachronic perspective on Wadden Sea salt marshes naturalness
Mans Schepers, Erik Meijles and Theo Spek

Caring for seals and the Wadden Sea: multispecies entanglements in seal rehabilitation
Doortje Hörst

Framing the Dollard Bay – Myth and Disaster in the 16th century
Otto Knottnerus


Telling Nature’s Story: Landscape as Commons at the Danish Wadden Sea
Cormac Walsh



Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

CANCELLED: The role of ports in regulating shipping flows.
Borja Nogue Alguero will be rescheduled to the session chaired by Achim Schlueter; "Blue Growth and Ocean Privatizations".


Chaired by: Van Tatenhove, J. P. M.

Port governance in the network society
Jan P.M. van Tatenhove & Jesper Raakjær

The development and governance of ports takes place in a global setting, consisting of networks and flows. At the crossroads between land and sea, ports are nodes in transnational economic, social and political networks. A key feature of the social organization of the global network society is the emergence of a ‘space of flows’, a timeless, boundless and transnational space in which flows travel between different nodes in a network, complementary to the ever existing place-bounded activities in the ‘space of places’. The aim of this paper is conceptualize the development, the role and the governance of ports from this network and flows perspective. Ports are both part of the space of flows and the space of places. On the hand, ports are nodes in the space of flows connecting the flow of shipping, while on the other hand ports bring together a variety of place-based local and national activities and port are developing into effective inter-modal hubs and attractive logistic centres for exchange of goods between sea, road and rail serving industrial park in the port hinterland. Port governance is the interactive process through which networks of actors, institutions and organizations operating at multiple levels are steering the different flows (harbour activities, shipping, land-sea connections, supporting the port industrial ecosystem etc.) towards collectively negotiated objectives. The paper analyses four different forms of port governance. Firstly governance of sustainable port infrastructure and green port development. Secondly the port governance as networking between ports to create a level playing field on for example environmental issues through cooperation and sharing of knowledge between ports (for example EcoPorts). Thirdly, governance as local and regional development. Fourthly regionalization in which ports are seen as part of a regional strategy (such as Macro Regional strategies and/or sea-basin strategies).


Growth in the Docks: Ports, metabolic flows and socioenvironmental impacts
Borja Nogué Algueró

Virtually all internationally traded goods are shipped via maritime transportation. Major commercial ports are vital components of current economies, enabling and defining international production, distribution and consumption systems. Although port development is usually associated to positive economic effects such as increased growth and employment, the continuous expansion and intensification of port activities produce adverse outcomes such as air and water pollution, the destruction of marine and coastal environments, and health risks, among others. Most literature on ports treat such negative impacts as external costs rectifiable through regulation, innovation, technological upgrading, and increased efficiency. Taking the Port of Barcelona as a case study, this paper argues that the socioenvironmental impacts of ports are an inherent part of the shipping industry’s growth-driven economic model and it examines the unsustainable aspects of increased port activity and development. Finally, it introduces Degrowth as a radical socioecological alternative to ocean-based growth paradigms and discusses its prospective ‘blue’ articulation in the context of ports and maritime transportation.


Cruise passenger accommodation preferences in a major home port pre- and post-voyage:
Evidence from Southampton, United Kingdom

Pavlos Arvanitis, Bailey Adie & Alberto Amore


Mainstream literature argues that the economic benefits deriving from cruise passengers at
ports of call are significant and suggests that ports of call should invest in leisure amenities and
services offered to cruise ship passengers in order to maximise returns. Nevertheless, the
mobility patterns and activities of cruise passengers at the departure port are currently
overlooked. Questions can be raised as to whether ports of call have limited tourism related
activity. This is the case in Southampton, the dominant home port on the southern coast of the
United Kingdom, which attracts around 2 million cruise passengers per year. The aim of this
paper is to map the activities and mobilities of cruise passengers that depart and, most likely,
return to Southampton and explore their preferences related to overnight stays in the area. Two
different passenger groups, who were embarking on two separate cruises, were surveyed in
order to collect data to respond to the previous questions. The data collected indicates that
there is limited willingness to stay overnight in Southampton pre- and post- cruise. This results
in the loss of a large potential tourism market for Southampton. The tendency in the cruise
industry towards greater accessibility highlights a potential opportunity to develop alternative
tourism products which accommodate the mobility patterns of cruise passengers that are
already in the city but do not engage with the amenities and facilities available at the
destination.


Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Coastal landscapes and childhood(s) transition accross three generations and four countries. (2)
Chaired by: Kjørholt, A.T.

Coastal landscapes and childhood(s)in transition across three generations and four countries
Anne Trine Kjørholt
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)


Contemporary coastal childhoods are connected to growing up in societies characterized by rapid transition with regard to economies and working life, livelihood, identity formation and intergenerational relations. Knowledge and skills, transmitted from one generation to the next through practices in everyday life is to a great extent replaced by schooling as the valued form of education. Thus, we witness shifting and competing forms of knowledge production over time. There is a danger of both deskilling, and of a devaluation of life-skills, practical, and environmental local knowledge that is of vital importance to maintain and further develop sustainable livelihoods in different coastal communities. Furthermore, children and young people’s lives are affected byincreasing individualisationWhile children some decades ago were brought up to be of use for their families and communities, they are today brought up to ‘be themselves’. Many of the contemporary coastal societies are ethnically diverse, arising questions of inclusion, exclusion and (dis)connectedness. These and other changes have wide-ranging implications for present everyday life and future development of sustainable coastal societies. In this panel we explore coastal landscapes and childhood(s)in transition across three generations and five countries. All the participants are part of the interdisciplinary research project; Valuing the past, sustaining the future. Education, knowledge and identity across three generations in coastal communities, at NTNU, funded by Research Council Norway.

This panel is part of a series of 2 sessions. It includes:
1. Paper presentations: 7 paper presentations+1 discussant
2. A round table entitled: Coastal childhoods in a comparative perspective. Young peoples’ experiences and perspectives. Presentation and dialogue among researchers from 4 countries (60 min).

Literature/paper presentations:

-  Childhoods through time: Children’s experiences of childhood across three generations from two coastal villages in Cyprus
Spyros Spyrou & Eleni Theodorou


Contemporary coastal childhoods are connected to growing up in societies characterized by rapid transition with regard to economies and working life, livelihood, identity formation and intergenerational relations. Knowledge and skills, transmitted from one generation to the next through practices in everyday life is to a great extent replaced by schooling as the valued form of education. Thus, we witness shifting and competing forms of knowledge production over time. There is a danger of both deskilling, and of a devaluation of life-skills, practical, and environmental local knowledge that is of vital importance to maintain and further develop sustainable livelihoods in different coastal communities. Furthermore, children and young people’s lives are affected by increasing individualisation. While children some decades ago were brought up to be of use for their families and communities, they are today brought up to ‘be themselves’. Many of the contemporary coastal societies are ethnically diverse, arising questions of inclusion, exclusion and (dis)connectedness. These and other changes have wide-ranging implications for present everyday life and future development of sustainable coastal societies. In this panel we explore coastal landscapes and childhood(s)in transition across three generations and five countries. All the participants are part of the interdisciplinary research project; Valuing the past, sustaining the future. Education, knowledge and identity across three generations in coastal communities, at NTNU, funded by Research Council Norway.

-  Growing up in a Norwegian coastal town in the 19th century. Work and intergenerational relations. 
Ellen Schrumpf


The paper is about how young boys growing up in a coastal town in Norway in the 19th century learned skills and became sailors aboard on a ship at a very young age. Young boys hired aboard together with their fathers. Practical knowledge was transfered from the one generation to the next.

-A review of local oriented and intergenerational educational programs in coastal communities in Norway 1970- 2019 
Tobias Johansson

This paper is linked to the PhD-project: Models for intergenerational knowledge transfer in Norwegian coastal communities within the interdisciplinary research project: Valuing the past, sustaining the future. Education, knowledge, identity across three generations in coastal communities. This project is funded by Research Council Norway and directed by professor Anne Trine Kjørholt, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

The aim of the paper is to present a review of educational projects linked to local oriented and intergenerational programs and practices in Norwegian coastal communities from 1970 to present time. This status of knowledge represents the first step towards the overall aim of the PhD study which is to develop new local oriented and intergenerational models for transfer of knowledge in upper secondary schools in coastal communities. In the paper I will link the presentation to discussion of marine epistemologies and different forms of knowledge production in coastal communities across time. The PhD study is addressing questions related to how educational systems can integrate relevant knowledge for young people in coastal communities, contributing to the economic, cultural and social sustainability of living close to the sea. It also raises the question of relevant education in geographically remote areas like the north Norwegian peninsula and what impact educational institutions have in a historically marginalised area close to the sea. Finally, it calls for intergenerational perspectives on education, emphasising continuity and belonging across generations.



Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning - whence and whither? (1)
Chaired by: Flannery, W., Toonen, H., Jay, S., & Vince, J

Critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning - whence and whither?
Wesley Flannery, Hilde Toonen, Stephen Jay and Joanna Vince

While area-based approaches to marine management have a long history, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has risen to become the dominant marine management paradigm. Over the last 10 years, MSP has been championed as a solution to a plethora of marine issues. MSP is promoted as: a process for implementing ecosystem-based management in the marine environment; a mechanism for reducing user conflict; as a means of enhancing environmental protection; and a process for facilitating the expansion of maritime economies. While MSP has become a popular subject of academic scrutiny, there is a dearth of theoretically-informed, social science MSP papers. This has resulted in calls for a critical turn in MSP scholarship. In response to this, a Thematic Series was developed for Maritime Studies. This session is comprised of papers accepted for the Thematic Series and provides a wide range of theoretically-informed reflections on MSP. The papers cover, amongst other things, knowledge production, the socio-spatial construction of the marine environment; social justice; the contested nature of the marine problem and evaluates emerging MSP practices in both the Global North and the Global South. The session, therefore, provides a comprehensive overview of critical thinking within MSP, and will lead to debate and discussion within each panel.


1. A Foucauldian Analysis of Marine Spatial Planning in the UK, 
Wesley Flannery and Ben McAteer 
 
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has been described as the rational organization of the use of marine space. Rationality is, however, context dependent and the context of rationality is power. The dominant asocial and apolitical conceptualisation of MSP views it as a logical process, sitting above power, which will produce rational use of marine areas. The perceived rationality of MSP is based on an uncritical understanding of the production space, particularly how space is produced by powerful actors. We argue that rather than being viewed as inherently rational, MSP should be considered a power-laden processes. Power may be present in a number of ways within MSP: political elites may define both the marine problem and its solution in a manner that suits their own agendas; or particular forms of 'knowledge' or 'norms' may be prioritised within the planning process. This paper presents a Foucauldian analysis of power within MSP processes in the UK. Adopting a governmentality framework, the paper analyses the problematizations, technologies, and rationalities of first UK marine plans.


2. The need for learning in Marine/Maritime Spatial Planning
Xander Keijser, Hilde Toonen, and Jan van Tatenhove

Both policy makers and scholars acknowledge and emphasize the need for learning in maritime spatial planning, as it still is a rather new approach. Even more, adaptive management which incorporates monitoring and evaluation in management actions, is seen as fundamental for maritime spatial planning, and further emphasizes the need for learning. Few neglect or criticize claims about the importance of learning. As such it remains a vague and understudied process, assumed to be and do “only good”.

In this paper, we investigate learning as a normative goal in maritime spatial planning and how it links to marine governance. The main research questions are: How is learning in maritime spatial planning conceptualised and operationalised? And to what extent does the 'learning paradox' also apply to maritime spatial planning? The authors elaborate on the five dimensions of the ‘Learning Paradox’ of Armitage and colleagues and examine to what extent these and other dimensions are relevant for maritime spatial planning. The analysis is carried out by performing a literature review on learning in maritime spatial planning in an European context, and a case study. The case study concentrates on the experiences of maritime spatial planning in the Netherlands, because various iterations have already taken place in the Netherlands.


3. Revisiting the social reconstruction of the marine environment: is now the time for a critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning?
Heather Ritchie and Linda McElduff

With the concept of Marine Spatial Planning firmly established within the UK with its own legislation, plans and planning policies, this paper critically revisits MSP as part of the wider debate associated with the social reconstruction of the marine environment, as first discussed by Peel and Lloyd’s seminal paper in 2004. We pose that some of the arguments made in that paper around the idea of a ‘marine problem’ still stand and are indeed exaberated, but we ascertain that there has been so much change in the governance of the marine environment that has positively altered the way that society has reconstructed a solution to that marine problem. In this paper we seek to revisit Hannigan’s (1995) social constructionist framework to demonstrate that the marine problem has been fully reconstructed by satisfying the 6 prerequisites. Hannigan stated that for an environmental issue (like the marine problem) to attain an identity on the policy agenda, there was a need to command action (policy intervention), claim legitimacy and invoke action. We seek to show that this has been achieved, even whilst there have been many governance obstacles hindering such progress. To do this we provide an overview of how the marine problem has intensified in the preceding 15 years, we look at the current marine planning arrangements in the UK have been shaped in that time, and we show, by updating the 6 prerequisites, how the marine problem has captured the wider public’s attention. We conclude by stating that the regulatory and policy environment of MSP has somewhat changed from 2004, but with an even moving agenda of change within the marine environment there is still much more to do be done for MSP to meeting Hannigan’s (1995) prerequisites.

4. Discussant:
Stephen Jay,



Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Fisheries and markets.
* panel desciption and paper abstracts in the attachment. 

Chaired by: Foley, P.

Trade, Narratives, and Nuances: Scaling Down of the Seafood Trade Talk
Jack Daly & Ratana Chuenpagdee

A sea of troubles: Searching for synergies between recreational and small-scale fisheries to ensure optimal environmental, socio-cultural and economic management in the Mediterranean MPAs
Gómez Mestres, Sílvia Sílvia Gómez, Elvira Sánchez, Arnau Carreño, Esther Martínez & Josep Lloret


Bluefin tuna quota access for small-scale fisheries in the Canary Islands: fighting for recognition
Jose Pascual-Fernández, Carmelo Dorta-Morales, Álvaro Díaz de la Paz

Access theory and marine fisheries: Integrating analyses of access to resources and to markets in the Newfoundland context 
Paul Foley, Courtenay E. Parlee,

Social-ecological reproduction and the substance of life in commodity frontiers: Newfoundland fisheries in world market shifts
Paul Foley

Speakers
JD

Jack Daly

Graduate Student, Memorial University of Newfoundland
SG

Sílvia Gómez Mestres

researcher and teacher, csic/uab (CER Artic)



Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

The emerging geo (-)politics of seabed mining.
* panel description and paper abstracts in the attachment.

Chaired by: Childs, J. & Carver Lancaster, R.

Panel description 
The depletion of onshore minerals, alongside technological advances, has led to a resurgence of interest in the exploration and exploitation of reserves located in the seabed. Concurrently, global and national discourses of the blue economy and blue growth speak of the development potential of seabed mining as a viable industry (Winder and Le Heron 2017: UNECA 2016). This session, therefore, seeks to critically engage with the emerging geo(-)politics of seabed mining. Many uncertainties pertain to marine-based mining, complicated by legislative ambiguity and the complex (geo)physical nature of the sea and proposed operations. These extractive projects also have the potential to conflict with traditional actors in the marine sphere including, but not limited to, artisanal and industrial fishing. This panel will explore the emerging politics and geopolitical challenges of seabed mining, contributing to related debates on ensuing contestations, rights and governance.


Into the abyss: the geopolitics of deep-sea mining in Papua New Guinea (Film screening and discussion)

John Childs

'Towards effective protection of the marine environment and equitable benefit-sharing in the Area: fact or fairytale?'. (paper presentation)

Klaas Willaert

Shaping frontiers: Seabed mining in Namibia’s EEZ (paper presentation)

Rosanna Carver

Deep Sea Mining and the Blue Economy: conflicting values, competing discourses and social license.
Michelle Voyer, Judith van Leeuwen



Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Transdiciplinary Fisheries Sciences for Blue Justice: The need to Go Between, Across and Beyond. (1)
Chaired by: Schreiber, M. & Chuenpagdee, R.

Transdisciplinary Fisheries Sciences for Blue Justice: The Need to Go Between, Across and Beyond
Milena Arias Schreiber & Ratana Chuenpagdee

Transdisciplinary research has been brought forward as a means to solve and mitigate real-world problems including fisheries. The Global Research Network Too Big To Ignore (TBTI) is inviting scientists who are interested in ‘transdisciplinary’ research to present their ideas about how to bridge gaps by going between, across and beyond disciplines in working towards ‘blue justice’ for ocean users and sustainability. In this special session, we want to explore the reasons for the lack of transdisciplinarity, the challenges and lessons to apply it, and how this affects fisheries and ocean sustainability under the Bluegrowth agenda, especially how it may exacerbate the marginalization of small-scale fisheries.


Illuminating Hidden Harvests: The contribution of small-scale fisheries to sustainable development
Nicole Franz 

FAO, WorldFish and Duke University are working in partnership with global experts to assess the contributions of small-scale fisheries (SSF). The presentation will provide a progress update on this ambitious project as well as discuss opportunities for applying the methodological approaches and frameworks developed under the project to promote knowledge integration to promote sustainable SSF. This study is a key effort designed to fortify growing momentum in implementing the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines), and action on the Sustainable Development Goals. The research builds on the initial 2012 Hidden Harvest study and encompasses pre-harvesting, harvesting and post-harvesting sectors of inland and marine fisheries.


Integrated approach to strengthen small-scale fishing vessel management in Indonesia
Irna Sari, Rifki Furkon, Irene Sahertian & Alan White

Small-scale fisheries are the dominant player in Indonesian that need to be monitored. The Indonesian policy requires vessel registration but exempts the fishers from licensing obligations. There is uncertainty over the pressure on fish stock of small-scale fishing because of insufficient of vessel management and self-registration by fishers. This presentation will share lessons learned and recommendations to move towards transdisciplinary research to advise practice in managing small-scale fisheries. It is a system consisting of many interrelated and interdependent factors dependent on transdisciplinary knowledge and actions underpinned by fisheries science, technology, gender inclusion, social marketing, and political, social, legal and institutional arrangements.


Transdisciplinary research framing promoted by small-scale fishers in Lake Malawi
Tetsu Sato, John Banana Matewere

Co-design of research framing addressing imminent challenges facing vulnerable sectors including small-scale fishers is critically important to promote transdisciplinary fisheries research involving researchers of diverse disciplines and various non-academic actors, because it requires integration of all necessary knowledge derived from diverse sources inside and outside academia. Based on our case study of innovative resource enhancement practices by a group of small-scale fishers of Lake Malawi, we discuss impacts of transdisciplinary processes driven by small-scale fishers upon mobilizing collaboration among fishers, scientists from different disciplines, administrators and local community actors to co-create sustainable, equitable and legitimate options of fisheries resource management.


Crossing interdisciplinary bridges to build effective conservation actions supporting fishers
Vandick da Silva Batista, Nidia Noemi Fabré, João Vitor Campos e Silva, Ana Cláudia Mendes Malhado & Richard Ladle 

Bio-ecological studies are increasingly done and published giving basis to managing biodiversity to reach conservation objectives. However, societies management is not being effective around conservation purposes as it is done to other purposes, like products sales, political campaigns and spreading fake news. Analysis including identification of cultural, institutional and psychological profiles to increase the effective participation of conservation scientists on the management of protected areas and in open area systems. A framework interacting those disciplines with ecology related disciplines will be presented focusing on tipping points to cross interdisciplinary bridges for a more effective evidence-based conservation science.


When is resilience sustainable? A critical analysis of the challenges facing the English small-scale fleet and their varying responses
Rebecca Korda, Tim Gray, Selina Stead

The viability of the English small-scale fisheries sector – the so-called ‘under-tens’ - is at risk. This work examines the challenges facing the under-ten fleet and identifies the primary causes of its vulnerability. It then investigates three coping strategies adopted by the fleet, discussing the reasons why different fisheries communities choose different approaches, and how management can influence those choices. By highlighting these factors, the research aims to help shape the way future onshore fisheries policy is constructed, so that more support can be given to the English small-scale sector.


Transdisciplinary Fisheries Sciences for Blue Justice: The Need to Go Between, Across and Beyond
Sisir Kantha Pradhan

Transdisciplinary research has been brought forward as a means to solve and mitigate real-world problems including fisheries. Yet, in most cases, research projects remain excluding many disciplines and crucial stakeholders and lack institutional frameworks that allow for the share, discussion and integration of ideas and visions for the oceans . In the new context of the “Blue Economy,” which is gaining popularity as observed at the recent conference in Kenya, the looming absence of transdisciplinarity and the lack of integration of different kinds of knowledge threaten the viability of many ocean users, especially small-scale fisheries that constitute the majority. To rectify the situation, Too Big To Ignore (TBTI) Global Research Network is inviting scientists who are interested in ‘transdisciplinary’ research to present their ideas about how to bridge the gaps by going between, across and beyond disciplines in working towards ‘blue justice’ for ocean users and ocean sustainability. In this special session, we want to explore the reasons for the lack of transdisciplinarity, the challenges and lessons to apply it, and how this affects fisheries and ocean sustainability, especially how it may exacerbate the marginalization of small-scale fisheries. Further, we are interested in learning about methodological approaches, frameworks and initiatives that have been successful at knowledge integration. Ultimately, we will reflect on the lessons learned and develop strategies for concerted efforts as we move towards the Ocean Decade in 2021.


Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Understanding perceptions, participatory processes, and potential for effective marine management. (1)
* panel desciption and paper abstracts in the attachment.

Chaired by: Kelly, R. & Mackey, M

Panel introduction
Involvement of the social sciences in marine management efforts is increasing, with great potential to advise and increase management success. Exploitation, conservation, and user conflict in multi-use marine areas are some of the of issues apparent at the fore of the marine socio-ecological research agenda. Our snapshot of exciting research brings together multiple components that can inform and contribute to this development of effective marine management, and which we hope can provoke interesting and inspiring discussion with our colleagues at the MARE Conference. Within this session, we will:

- Deliver novel and compelling research on social licence, support, and conflict in marine spaces.
- Present specific case studies, including management preferences of local stakeholders, a social network analysis of stakeholders involved in turtle conservation, and the role of media in marine environmental conflict, and
- Outline prospective thinking for effective participatory processes and marine management.


Multiple approaches to understanding recreational fishers’ management preferences
Mary Mackay

Understanding the uncertainty in preferences of fishers is fundamental for effective evidence-based decision making. To this end, this study aims to understand recreational fishers’ management preferences to inform decision makers who are balancing sustainability and societal goals. Specifically, this study uses a combination of a non-market valuation method which incorporates fishers to make trade-offs as well as an opinion based survey approach within a consumptive recreational fishery. In Tasmanian, Australia, the east coast Rock Lobster stocks have been in decline and consequently a ten-year strategy was implemented in 2013 to rebuild them to healthy levels. To achieve this, measures to limit the amount of lobsters caught were implemented for the recreational sector but further restrictions are required to meet and sustain the stock rebuilding goals. As a diverse fishery- with divers, potters, ring, and multi-use fishers- and a range of avidity levels, it is expected to contain fishers with divergent preferences towards management. This paper will outline 1) the opinions of fishers’ perceived support and effectiveness of management measures collected via a phone survey, 2) the behaviours of fishers within hypothetical management scenarios as defined by five management tools using a discrete choice experiment, and 3) the trade-offs fishers make between these five management tools. We find both homogenous and heterogeneous preferences between fishing modes and avidity levels. There was consensual aversion towards a reduction in bag limit or season length by all fishers. Other management tools have less consensus in preference and any changes in these tools could impact a sub-section of the fishery population. We suggest specific future management approaches that fishers support that also minimally impact their utility.

Publicised scrutiny and mediatised environmental conflict in aquaculture
Coco Cullen-Knox

As global fish consumption grows, aquaculture is set to rapidly expand off coastlines around the world. Although seen as the future for seafood production, aquaculture carries environmental and social impacts. For example, salmon aquaculture has been a site of contention in many countries which farm the fish in their coastal waters. Likewise, the salmon aquaculture industry in Tasmania, Australia’s southern island state, is experiencing considerable growth at a time of rapid social and technological changes. This has instigated heightened public debate, protest, environmental campaigning and media attention regarding the risks of Tasmanian salmon aquaculture. This research examines how environmental risks concerning Tasmanian salmon aquaculture are defined, articulated and negotiated between varying actors, both locally and transnationally in the Australia-Asia region. This is discussed in terms ofhow this in turn influences governance most broadly, through the way science-based information is utilised and values positions are articulated, aggregated and considered in agenda setting and problem definition in the decision-making process. Contemporary areas of contention around the accountability, transparency, inclusion and the links between public, policy and media highlight the complexity of communication mechanisms and practices in current environmental conflicts.


The basis for benefit sharing in fisheries policy: bold promises and missed opportunities for Australian fisheries
Emily Ogier & Caleb Gardner


Fisheries public policy is necessarily built on multiple policy goals that reflect the intent to manage resource use within ecologically sustainable constraints while also delivering beneficial social, cultural and economic outcomes. However, who has standing, who are the intended beneficiaries of these outcomes, and who is affected is rarely named beyond ‘the community’ or ‘the industry’. The resulting dearth in direction for constituency, benefit sharing and distributional mechanisms can lead to a range of unintended consequences, including benefit hoarding by key private actors with negligible or only indirect community net benefit derived. Through content analysis of policy frameworks for Australia’s managed fisheries, combined with assessments of social and economic performance for selected cases which include cases of ‘super-profit’ fisheries, we examine the implications of policy design and goal ambiguity for benefit sharing. We then propose a benefit pathway conceptual model for conceiving of the policy means that determine the distributional outcomes of fisheries management to assist policy communities in matching policy goals and more operational objectives to policy means.

Social network analysis: How do social and institutional characteristics support long-term marine conservation?
Ms Sierra Ison, Dr Christopher Cvitanovic, Dr Ingrid van Putten, Dr Alistair Hobday

A critical gap in marine conservation is a lack of long-term stakeholder commitment to ensure social and environmental outcomes. Difficulty arises from insufficient attention to the social and institutional dynamics that influence conservation decision-making and assists conservation action. As a result, consensus has developed on the need to include stakeholders in framing, implementing, and monitoring conservation initiatives. Focusing on the 30-year Northwest Shelf Flatback Turtle Conservation Program (NWSFTCP) in Western Australia, this study uses a Social Network Analysis (SNA) to measure how individuals and organisation communicate, learn, and share knowledge across conservation schemes. Relationships and social influence as captured by SNA offer a useful perspective for understanding and addressing these issues. We begin to identify and understand these interactions by examining how formal and informal power dynamics and shadow networks influence long-term conservation of flatback turtles. To expose how the networks structure and functions change over time, we introduce the use of feedback loops. This tool begins to identify gaps within the networks, uncover points of power to assess connectivity between stakeholders, and how to build stakeholder commitment for long-term conservation action. The novel use of feedback loops within an SNA provide a means to properly model the relational context and dimensions in which behaviour takes places and allows for the creation of a conservation agenda that safeguards the needs of stakeholders. By valuing how formal and informal human-environment and human-human relations effect marine conservation outcomes, we can improve conservation outcomes for the environment and humanity.



Speakers
avatar for Coco Cullen-Knox

Coco Cullen-Knox

PhD Candidate/Research Assistant, Centre for Marine Socioecology / Uniiversity of Tasmania
With a background in the natural sciences and in environmental consulting I developed an interest in how environmental risks were negotiated publicly and how this might interact with governance more broadly. My research has followed environmental campaigns regarding salmon aquaculture... Read More →
avatar for Emily Ogier

Emily Ogier

Institute for Marine & Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania
I am a human geographer and political economist by training with an interest in governance and institutional design. I coordinate the social and economic research subprogram for the Australian Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, which draws on a range of human dimensions... Read More →



Tuesday June 25, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Blue growth: Social development and environmental protection or a 'blue fix'?
Chaired by: Pedersen, C.

Panel title: Blue growth: social development and environmental protection or a ‘blue fix’?
Carsten Pedersen & Mads Barbesgaard (The Transnational Institute, Lund University)

This panel offers a critical conversation on the scale and impact of capital investments into ocean-space. The ocean and its resources are increasingly framed as providing a new frontier for capital accumulation through what is being called ‘blue growth’. This blue growth is simultaneously touted as the solution to a range of crises (finance, food, climate and energy) that triggered in the wake of 2007/8. While proponents see win-win-win solutions and ample opportunities to implement the blue growth agenda through different emerging multistakeholder processes (e.g. SDGs), fisher movements are ramping up campaigns against blue growth, framing the ensuing shifts in control of and access to ocean-space as ‘ocean grabbing’ instead. The panel will therefore also engage with representatives from fisher movements on which opportunities there are for cooperation between movements and critical and engaged academics interrogating these transformations in ocean-space.


Livelihood transitions from fishing to tourism: the role of land tenure
Michael Fabinyi

Coastal and maritime tourism has been supported by the growth of middle-class tourist markets, the promotion of governments who view it as an important avenue for economic growth, and the backing of environmental organisations who see it as an alternative, more environmentally sustainable livelihood than capture fisheries. How policymakers and households in coastal areas negotiate the challenges and opportunities associated with growing tourism and declining capture fisheries is becoming an increasingly important phenomenon. Drawing on extended ethnographic fieldwork from the Philippines between 2006-2018, this paper examines the transition from fishing to tourism and the consequences for a coastal community. I focus on how land tenure is a key variable that shapes the impacts and opportunities associated with livelihood transitions from fishing to tourism. While tourism itself has not been inherently positive or negative for the local community, their ability to negotiate the boom and obtain the full benefits out of it is questionable. Many fishers have switched their primary livelihood activity to tourism, e.g. through the construction of tourist boats, working as tour guides or providing accommodation. However, the growth of tourism has catalysed several attempts to evict the community, including local elites aiming to develop resorts on the coast and, more recently a push by the national administration to ‘clean up’ tourist sites around the country. I argue that land tenure in coastal communities needs to become more of a focus for researchers working in small-scale fisheries, as well as researchers working on land rights.


Can academia support fisher movements to gain more power in the sector?
Mogamad Naseegh Jaffer


“[Academics] should enhance the capacity of small-scale fishing communities in order to enable them to participate in decision-making processes” - chapter 12 of the SSF Guidelines
I speak as a representative of the World Forum of Fisher Peoples representing some 10 million fisher peoples worldwide. I will argue that states, academia and other actors have failed to support fisher movements on their own terms and conditions. Some positive initiatives can be highlighted but considering the vast amounts of resources (including funding from governments and private foundations) used on development programmes and research on small-scale fisheries, we can conclude that only a tiny fraction of those resources are made available to movements themselves. If academics buy into the spirit of the SSF guidelines – with emphasis on ‘capacity development’ – we must explore how they can best contribute to the empowerment of fisher movements?


Brainstorming a social scientific research agenda for the Blue Economy
Michelle Voyer


The Blue Economy, sometimes also called ‘Blue Growth’, is a contested, yet increasingly influential concept which is gaining considerable traction in ocean based sustainable development narratives. The concept has been championed by institutions around the world as coastal states explore the economic opportunities that exist within and beyond their ocean jurisdictions. Yet there is no common agreement of what the terms ‘Blue Economy’ and ‘Blue Growth’ mean either in principle or in practice, with evidence to date pointing to the term being co-opted by many different actors according to often competing agendas and objectives. This gives rise to a range of challenges which social scientists will play a crucial role in identifying, critiquing and, where possible, resolving. This innovative panel will aim to use a collaborative, brainstorming approach to articulating the challenges and opportunities that a Blue Economy provides, and the key social science questions that will need to be addressed as the concept evolves. The session will consist of a diverse panel of social scientists working on various dimensions of the Blue Economy, each speaking to a different Blue Economy theme. The panel will also include audience participation and discussion and aims to identify a prioritized agenda for future Blue Economy research.






Speakers

Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Coastal governance approaches
Chaired by: Morrison, T.H.

Governance ‘ingredients’ for operationalizing integrated coastal and marine management initiatives: Insights from lived experiences in the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic Canada
Sondra Eger & Simon Courtenay

Practical approaches to operationalize integrated coastal and marine management are under-investigated. Defined here as a holistic and strategic governance arrangement employed worldwide to help move beyond conventional sector-based approaches, integrated coastal and marine management contributes to the sustainability of complex and dynamic social-ecological systems. In Canada, for example, advancing integrated initiatives such as ecosystem-based approaches and marine spatial planning has proven difficult despite ample effort. This study uses an abductive approach to examine how, and to what degree past integrative initiatives have been operationalized -planned, implemented, monitored/evaluated, adapted. Our case in the Bay of Fundy in Atlantic Canada is a unique social-ecological system with diverse and ecologically significant habitats, activities competing for access to resources and rich cultural attachments to the ocean. In-person, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 68 individuals across multiple sectors and scales with experience and interest in past or future integrative initiatives in the Bay of Fundy for professional, personal, or cultural reasons. Results indicate that few initiatives have progressed beyond planning into the implementation phase due to impediments related to: changes in political leadership; local resource user conflicts; incompatible jurisdictional incentives; unclear legislation; and, lack of participatory processes. By understanding the lived experiences of individuals involved in past and current integrated initiatives, insights into key governance ‘ingredients’ for enhancing the resilience and desired outcomes of integrated initiatives emerged. This study provides a synthesis of existing impediments, opportunities and recommendations for operationalizing integrated coastal and marine management initiatives for both the Bay of Fundy as well as other global regions with similar problem contexts. These results shape how we as scholars, practitioners and managers conceptualize integrated coastal and marine management as a governance approach for advancing sustainability within coastal and marine social-ecological systems.


The black box of power in polycentric marine governance
 Tiffany H Morrison

Failure to address unsustainable change in marine environments is often attributed to failures in conventional environmental governance. Polycentric environmental governance—the popular alternative—involves many centres of authority interacting coherently for a common governance goal. Yet, longitudinal analysis reveals many polycentric systems are struggling to cope with the growing impacts, pace, and scope of social and environmental change. Analytic shortcomings are also beginning to appear, particularly in the treatment of power. This paper draws together diverse social science perspectives and research into a variety of cases to show how different types of power shape rule setting, issue construction, and policy implementation in polycentric environmental governance. The paper outlines an important and emerging research agenda for polycentric marine governance, integrating diverse types of power into analytical and practical models.


How can different planning approaches increase coastal governance integration? Case studies from Norway
Ann-Magnhild Solås
 
In Norway, spatial planning of the near shore waters, termed coastal zone planning, is a task delegated to the local municipal authorities. Given that the 273 coastal municipalities have different planning needs and practices, and that sectors such as fisheries, aquaculture or environmental management are governed by state sector authorities, there are calls for increased integration of coastal governance. In this paper, we discuss how the municipal planning may answer to this call. There are several planning approaches that might lead to increased governance integration. Some municipalities produce a spatial sub-plan for their coastal waters alone, others plan their entire space, land and marine areas, in a joint plan in order to increase integration of land, shoreline and marine uses. Other approaches include producing spatial plans across jurisdictional borders, for instance including several municipalities, either through inter-municipal plans or through regional county level planning. Utilizing existing frameworks on marine governance integration, this paper discusses how these different planning approaches affect integration across the land-sea boundary; geographical borders; institutions and governance levels; and sector interests and stakeholders. How can different approaches to spatial planning contribute to more integrated governance of the coastal zone? Which practices and processes lead to increased integration, and how do these differ between planning approaches? And how are sector interests included in the different planning processes?

Circular economy as a remedy for fishermen from Polish Lagoons low incomes. (poster)
Marcin Rakowski, Adam Mytlewski, Olga Szulecka.

In the area of the Vistula and Szczecin Lagoons, fishing has been a low-profit profession for over a dozen years. This is a huge change for the entire region, because the fisherman's profession has been perceived so far as a profitable traditional occupation, which is a regional hallmark supporting the local identity. Maintenance of the fisherman from fishing poses now a big challenge. The resources of valuable species like are very limited. Increasing the share of low-value species fishery resulted in lowering living standards of the fishermen's families.
The solution proposed by the Be-Rural project is to contribute to the promotion of the region through its natural biological resources, their effective local utilization and maximizing the added value obtained by local communities. Residents of lagoon regions are the goal of activities aimed at increasing the awareness that the resource is the coastal location or conditions for tourism, but also exploitation of biological resources. With the support of science, NGO’s and local authorities, it is possible to create the basis for economic development using local biological potential - fish resources. The first step of Be-Rural project is to determine which species occurring in the lagoon waters give the opportunity to promote them as a product closely related to the region. Then a set of guidelines for these areas development will be prepared, to help the local communities to fully utilize fish resources and to increase locally generated benefits in line with the principles of circular bioeconomy. The key factor for success of the assumed activities is the need to maintain the resulting added value as close as possible to the place of obtaining the fish stock. This can be achieved by promoting the regional character of the product, but also by proposing new methods for managing natural resources.


Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning - whence and whither? (2)
Chaired by: Flannery, W., Toonen, H., Jay, S., Vince, J.

Panel Introduction
Critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning - whence and whither? (2)
Wesley Flannery, Hilde Toonen, Stephen Jay and Joanna Vince

While area-based approaches to marine management have a long history, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has risen to become the dominant marine management paradigm. Over the last 10 years, MSP has been championed as a solution to a plethora of marine issues. MSP is promoted as: a process for implementing ecosystem-based management in the marine environment; a mechanism for reducing user conflict; as a means of enhancing environmental protection; and a process for facilitating the expansion of maritime economies. While MSP has become a popular subject of academic scrutiny, there is a dearth of theoretically-informed, social science MSP papers. This has resulted in calls for a critical turn in MSP scholarship. In response to this, a Thematic Series was developed for Maritime Studies. This session is comprised of papers accepted for the Thematic Series and provides a wide range of theoretically-informed reflections on MSP. The papers cover, amongst other things, knowledge production, the socio-spatial construction of the marine environment; social justice; the contested nature of the marine problem and evaluates emerging MSP practices in both the Global North and the Global South. The session, therefore, provides a comprehensive overview of critical thinking within MSP, and will lead to debate and discussion within each panel.

Papers
1.  Government or governance for future oceans?
Lisa Campbell, Noëlle Boucquey, Luke Fairbanks, Kevin St. Martin & Sarah Wise
 
We apply theories of environmental governance to critically reflect on ocean planning in federal waters of the USA. Although others have written about the post-political orientation of MPS, we are interested in its post-governmental orientation and the US case is illustrative. MSP was initiated in July 2010 when President Obama issued Executive Order 13547; this set in motion what was then called coastal and marine spatial planning, but without a legislative mandate or congressional appropriation. There are many reasons we might expect MSP to be a federal government led initiative, including: the vast expanse of water under federal authority exercised via numerous federal agencies, ; the public trust doctrine that mandates federal management of oceans for the public good; and federal interests in oceans as critical to trade and national defense. Despite the federal government’s ‘stakes’ in MSP, the MSP project in the USA is transpiring in a neoliberal era in which there is little enthusiasm for large government-led initiatives. Thus, the project has been one of governance, with federal and state agencies participating as one of many stakeholders in ‘voluntary’ initiatives. What does a planning process of this scope and geographic extent look like as a project of environmental governance? We apply governance themes of actors, knowledge, and scale to show how US MSP is both illustrative of and contributes to our understanding of contemporary environmental governance. We have argued elsewhere that MSP in the USA has the potential to deliver alternative outcomes to marginalization of communities and enclosure of environments for capital accumulation, but this potential is fragile. In an era of unstable government when Executive Orders can be given out and revoked at the whim of the White House, questions about who/how MSP is carried in real space/time become even more important.


2. The role of knowledge in marine spatial planning: the case of fisheries
 Brice Trouillet & Alicia Said

In MSP, the production of knowledge is fundamental as it informs the process of how boundaries for the spatial uses are created and maintained. This paper considers knowledge, developed during the mapping and planning processes, not as a base but rather as a stake at the core of planning, because knowledge is an assemblage of different kinds of knowledges evolving from different streams of power. Using the case of fisheries-generated knowledge, we contend that the fisheries data that informs the MSP process is still very much streamlined to the classical bioeconomic metrics. Such metrics fall short of describing the multiple and complex knowledges that comprise fisheries, such as social and cultural typologies, as well as the scale and dynamics, hence providing incomplete information for the decision-making process of MSP. Typical cases include the socio-cultural elements of small-scale fisheries, the importance of which remain subjugated by the more dominant biological and economic datasets. In this paper we provide a way forward by proposing a model that envisages the bringing together of the existing datasets and proposes the integration of social and cultural elements, as well as incorporating the more complex spatio-temporal elements, to create dynamic rather than static datasets for MSP. Furthermore, we argue that the process of knowledge production and the building of the parameters of such datasets, should be based on effective stakeholder participation, predominantly fishers, whose futures depend on the plans that eventually result from MSP. Finally, we recommend that this model is adopted to inform the process of knowledge production currently being undertaken in the diverse countries engaging in the MSP process, such that the policies that accrue from the process are reflective of the complexities that characterise fisheries, and are legitimized through a process of knowledge co-production.


3.Deus ex machina’ into the sea: the geographical assemblage of MSP
Romain Legé & Yannick Leroy

Supported by the blue growth theory of the neoliberal machine, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has suddenly become the nearly exclusive way of looking at marine planning and management. MSP is much more than a rational tool organizing the use of marine spaces: it is a geographical assemblage linking three parts of a whole, i.e. “Planning”, “Spatial” and “Marine”. First, “Planning” is the political framework in which governmentality is exercised (e.g. imposing its agenda in post-political processes). Second, “Spatial” is a particular metrology of space which associates data and tools to think and structure space (e.g. using GIS or Marxan software). Third, “Marine” is a seascape that maps limit to a 2D non-dynamic vision, favouring a representation of dominant activities and uses (e.g. energy, conservation, transport…). This deconstruction of MSP as a geographical assemblage shows how MSP has become a Deus ex Machina and how neoliberal approaches of marine planning are producing neoliberal seas.


4. Discussant: 
Joanna Vince

Speakers
avatar for Brice Trouillet

Brice Trouillet

University of Nantes, France



Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

European Maritime and Coastal Cultural Heritage: Walking a fine line between utilisation and preservation in the Blue Growth Era.
Chaired by: Delaney. A. E.

European Coastal and Maritime Cultural Heritage: Walking a fine line between utilisation and preservation in the Blue Growth Era
Alyne Elizabeth Delaney
Aalborg University 


This panel presents on-going, cutting edge research on European maritime and coastal in/tangible cultural heritage. Cultural heritage (CH) provides a sense of place, unity, and belonging to people living in and visiting coastal and maritime regions and seas. Rooted in specific landscapes, seascapes, buildings, stories, traditions, language, and cultural practices, cultural heritage is a fundamental part of every society. It connects people to each other and to the past and helps guide the future.
Protection and advocacy for cultural heritage can strengthen identity and local society, thereby improving overall quality of life. Culture and heritage are essential in maintaining and building Europe’s economic, social, cultural and natural capital. Realizing the potential of cultural heritage in these terms can generate prosperity, bring new jobs, enhance communities and improve environments in ways comparable to Blue Growth initiatives. Indeed, the European Commission is pushing for such Blue Growth-CH-related developments and initiatives now.
Yet, coastal cultural landscapes face risks from climate change, pollution, urbanisation, mass tourism, demographic challenges in remote regions, the transformation of the European fishing industry, neglect, and inconsistent policies of sea and shore conservation across governance scales and between regions.
In the panel, we open with a theoretical paper presenting a “three pillars” concept of sustainable utilization of maritime cultural heritage, one which is dependent upon the concepts of space, place and identity, resilience and adaptation, and participatory governance. The subsequent papers provide empirical data from European case studies in Estonia, France, Portugal, and elsewhere in Europe which focus on the threats to maritime CH and practical and pragmatic steps for managing CH. The panel ends with open discussion on the cultural and societal importance of maritime and coastal cultural heritage in Europe, and the world.


The Three Pillars necessary for sustainable utilization of maritime cultural heritage: Space, Place, and Identity, Resilience and Adaptation, and Participatory Governance” 
Alyne Delaney & Kristen Ounanian

With sustainable utilization of maritime and coastal Cultural Heritage (CH) as an ultimate goal, this paper presents our understanding of CH based upon a theoretical framework of three pillars: space, place, and identity; resilience and adaptation; and deliberative and participatory governance. Combining these three theoretical pillars brings insights for the sustainable usage and governance of maritime and coastal CH for the benefits of society. Only once the importance of coastal spaces and places and how they form identities are known; how cultures and society are vulnerable or resilient and can adapt; and how good governance takes place, can CH be used sustainably—to the benefit of society.


Review of threats to European maritime CH and risk management strategies (European-wide)
Alexandra Baixinho, Cristina PITA, Margarida Silva, Laura Ferguson, Brendan Murtagh & Wesley Flannery

Coastal maritime and cultural heritage provides a sense of place, unity, and belonging. Rooted in specific landscapes, seascapes, buildings, stories, traditions, language, and cultural practices, cultural heritage is a fundamental part of every society. It connects people to each other and to the past and helps guide the future. Despite its importance, cultural heritage is exposed to environmental and human caused threats, e.g. sea-level rising, coastal erosion, flooding, pollution, vandalism, tourism, mismanagement, “MacDonaldization”. Several countries are already developing risk management strategies to mitigate threats and preserve tangible and intangible maritime heritage. Under the H2020 project PERICLES ‘PrEseRvIng and sustainably governing Cultural heritage and Landscapes in European coastal and maritime regionS’ a literature review identified the main risks to cultural heritage globally, followed by empirical work to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders (academics, government and non-government stakeholders) about risks and risk mitigation strategies on eight case study regions across six European seas (Central Portugal, North-East Aegean Sea, Malta, Scotland, Ireland and Northern Ireland, Wadden Sea, inshore coastal Denmark and Danish islands, South-West coast of Estonia, and Brittany). This paper provides an overview of the major threats to CH and the risk management strategies that are applied to mitigate them and to preserve tangible and intangible maritime assets.


Threats and Opportunities for maritime cultural heritage: a case study in Gulf of Livonia
Maili Roio & Tanel Saimre

Inhabitants of the Estonian island of Kihnu in the Gulf of Livonia have maintained their traditional cultural practices to such a large degree that the island has been inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The resultant increase in tourism and reliance on income from it creates a Catch-22 situation: tourism threatens the traditional lifestyle on the one hand, and limits the community’s capacity to change on the other.
The Baltic Sea (and Gulf of Livonia as a part of it) also has most shipwrecks per sq km of all the bodies of water in the world. This abundance of underwater cultural heritage is an opportunity (to develop diving tourism, for example) and also a responsibility (to do it sustainably). Integrating underwater CH into maritime spatial planning is a necessary but not sufficient condition for that. Our case study demonstrates an attempt to merge all these.


Spatial Planning and Maritime Cultural Heritage in French law :
Between protected areas of environmental law and maritime spatial planning, which future for cultural heritage?

Nicolas Boillet


In French environmental law, maritime and coastal cultural heritage and landscapes are notably protected and promoted by means of space protection instruments, which are either general (regional natural park) or specific to the sea (marine natural park). The interest of these parks is to inventory the heritage of a territory, to reveal its value and to provide for management measures. These instruments do not contain directly protective provisions, such as prohibitions to do work, unlike the techniques of protection of historic monuments provided for by cultural heritage legislation. But these natural parks stand out in a flexible relationship to town and country planning documents. The interest of these instruments is also to federate the will of local authorities and to involve the population.
In addition to environmental protection legislation, there is also another policy of maritime spatial planning. Directive 2014/89 / EU of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning has obliged states to implement a maritime spatial planning process. Cultural heritage is also captured by this other policy. The Directive refers to Integrated Coastal Zone Management but does not include it in its scope. ICZM instruments are also relevant for participating in the preservation of cultural heritage.
The challenge is to evaluate the interest of various planning instruments in the preservation and management of maritime cultural heritage. In the framework of the Pericles project, this paper should serve as a guide to prepare a field study on the Gulf of Morbihan, territory where a set of protective instruments is concentrated because of the very rich cultural heritage site.


Speakers
NB

Nicolas Boillet

senior lecturer, Brest University
Nicolas Boillet, senior lecturer in publicLaw (maître de conférences en droit public) at Brest University, IUEM, UMR AMURE (laboratory), co-director of the master's degree in maritime activities law. Research field : public law, environmental law, maritime and coastal law, spec... Read More →



Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Marine science perspectives
Chaired by: Hornidge, A.K.

Changing up social sciences research in light of populist political influences on marine and coastal management outcomes: cases from Australia
Kate Brooks, Kate Barclay & Quentin Grafton


In the sphere of marine and coastal management in Australia, policy and decision-making processes based on principles of ecological sustainability and stakeholder consultation are frequently ‘side-swiped’ by interventions from politicians for electoral reasons. In Australia special interest groups for biodiversity conservation on the one hand and recreational fishing on the other have in several cases captured the attention of key politicians, meaning that resource management decisions based on principles of ecologically sustainable development have been overturned, such that professional fishing has been excluded from large areas of the coast.

Powerful special interest groups and populist politics have negatively impacted the effectiveness of current interdisciplinary research approaches. We argue that the social sciences could address this problem by explicitly including politics as part of the system to be understood and governed in natural resource management. The political pressure placed on governance processes and decision making is rarely considered in interdisciplinary approaches to coastal management. Populist politics, wherein ‘experts’ are mistrusted in favour of the experiential wisdom of the everyday person, is playing a role in that research evidence and robust policy processes have become less important in legitimising resource allocation decisions. A related issue is that the research supporting resource management – both social and bio-physical – has been poorly communicated to the general public. We explore this with reference to case studies from the east coast of Australia, where inadequate appreciation of the political climate has contributed to disengagement and disenfranchisement of stakeholders (community and political) from governance process.

We suggest that opportunities exist for the social sciences to contribute more effectively to marine and coastal governance through directly addressing power and politics in participatory processes and adjusting research construction and communication to deliver more frequent, small bite, updates on research outputs.


Fishing Styles in the Dutch demersal fleet: Understanding fisher behaviour through improved classification
Amanda Schadeberg, Marloes Kraan, Katell Hamon

The focus of much fisheries management policy and research in the EU has been on the resource (the fish) rather than the resource user (the fisher). However, there are significant changes coming to the fishery, many of which are social or political in nature, that will affect the fishers far more than the fish. These include the construction of offshore windmill parks, technological innovations in gear and processing, Brexit, and the introduction of the discard ban. The impact of these changes on fishers in the Netherlands depends on many factors, such as the status and security of their business, their attachment to certain areas of the sea, and their flexibility in fishing techniques. There is thus a need to understand the behaviour of fishers beyond simple models of profit-seeking and regulation compliance in order to predict, manage, or overcome the challenges that lie ahead with minimal negative social impact. This paper employs the fishing styles method to present quantitative analysis of the various fishing practices in the Dutch fleet and how their use has changed over time. This analysis is complemented by insights from more than 25 in-depth interviews with Dutch fishers, which reveal their motivations, concerns, and priorities as they go about their daily lives at sea. The results of this paper can be useful to monitor trends in the fleet and their consequences, to explain and improve non-compliance behaviour, and to evaluate the impact of policy interventions in social terms.


Speakers
KB

Kate Brooks

Director, KAL Analysis Pty Ltd
AS

Amanda Schadeberg

Wageningen University and Research



Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Realizing the potential of fish in food systems
* for paper abstracts see attachment.

Chaired by: Armstrong Simmance, F.

Panel introduction
All people have a right to adequate food that meets the requirements for survival as well as being nutritionally adequate for health and well-being (UN General Assembly, 2012). One of the greatest challenges facing humanity in the decades ahead is to provide nutritious, safe and affordable food to support healthy lives of up to 10 billion people, and to do so within defined and immovable planetary boundaries. Fish is a nutritionally rich, diverse, highly tradable food commodity, and has an important place in this future. The resilience and transformation of the role of fish to food and nutrition security depend critically on large-scale dynamics and drivers of trade, land use, water resource management, ocean futures, environmental change, food policies and regulations governing food production.
New research and attention into these large-scale dynamics, and the resulting effects on food systems have challenged the way researchers examine and understand food and nutrition security outcomes, and the entry points to enhance them. Understanding and working with inherently complex food systems have become a powerful and popular framing as a pathway to improve food and nutrition security. “A food system gathers all the elements (environment, people, inputs, processes, infrastructures, institutions, etc.) and activities that relate to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, and the outputs of these activities, including socio-economic and environmental outcomes” (HLPE, 2017). Yet, a recent review of the literature suggests that research examining fish in food systems has not kept pace with this broadening framing.  In 2017, 28 articles considered fish and food systems and of those, only a fraction looked at diverse components and relationships of the food system, and most research only examined or implicated production (i.e. quantity of fish available). In summary – research, explanatory power, and the design of interventions around fisheries are yet to fully align with food systems perspectives – and food systems research poorly accounts for the unique attributes of fish as a source of multiple micronutrients, essential fatty acids and animal protein, with a low environmental footprint. In this panel, we present some of the latest research and collectively examine where food systems framings might provide a better understanding of food and nutrition security.  We will share research to date, determine a shared research agenda and further explore impactful research for development partnerships.

Realizing the potential of fish in food systems
Fiona Armstrong Simmance 

Fish for nourishing nations within the global agenda on food and nutrition security
Shakuntala Thilsted and Kendra Byrd.

Harnessing global fisheries to tackle micronutrient deficiencies 
Christina C. Hicks, Philippa J. Cohen, Nicholas A. J. Graham, Kirsty L. Nash, Edward H. Allison, Coralie D’Lima, David J. Mills, Matthew Roscher, Shakuntala Thilsted, Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman, & M. Aaron MacNeil.

Applying a food systems lens to the value of small-scale fisheries to nutrition in Nigeria
Kendra Byrd, Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted, Brianna Bradley.

When kastom and malnutrition meet – fish in a traditional Melanesian food system.
Jillian Tutuo

Adopting a Food System Perspective on Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in Asia
Xavier Tezzo

Speakers
avatar for Xavier Tezzo

Xavier Tezzo

Research Program Coordinator, WorldFish Myanmar
I am a natural scientist and development worker specialized in freshwater systems. Originally from Belgium and Congo, I have previously lived and worked in Africa and Southeast Asia. I work as a research program coordinator for WorldFish in Myanmar and concurrently undertake a social... Read More →



Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Trandiciplinary works for Coastal Community Reslient in Disaster Context: Japan and Indonesia Compared.
Chaired by: Sugimoto, A.

Trandiciplinary works for Coastal Community Reslient in Disaster Context: Japan and Indonesia Compared 
Dedi S. Adhuri, Aoi Sugimoto & Hiroaki Sugino
Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Japan Fisheries Research & Education Agency, The University of Tokyo 

Coastal communities have been increasingly experiencing extreme events including Tsunami, super typhoons, and storm surge. Indonesia and Japan, both known as island nations which have massive seafood demands and also severe, frequent natural disasters, are facing the emergent necessity to deal with this increasing disaster events. This panel session will address this urgent topic, by inviting interdisciplinary researchers from Indonesia and Japan. In this session speakers and participants will share their knowledge, experience, and discuss how the local coastal communities can enhance their resilience toward frequent extreme events, by being collaborated with external agencies such as academics, governments, and industries.

Literature/articles discussed:

Strengthening or Weakening the community resilience against natural and human disaster events: Evidence from Japan.
Aoi Sugimoto

Learning from the NOW, Planning the Future with Agile-up Strategy.
Hiroaki Sugino


Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Transdiciplinary Fisheries Sciences for Blue Justice: The need to Go Between, Across and Beyond. (2)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment.  

Chaired by Schreiber, M. & Chuenpagdee, R.

Transdisciplinary Fisheries Sciences for Blue Justice: The Need to Go Between, Across and Beyond
Milena Arias Schreiber & Ratana Chuenpagdee

Blue justice: A unifying concept for transdisciplinarity towards ‘multi-dimensional’ sustainability
Cornelia Nauen & Aliou Sall

Democratising inland fisheries in South Africa: the shift from apartheid era legacies to one based on constitutional imperatives
Qurban Rouhani

Legal reform and governance transformationfor sustainable small-scale fisheries in Thailand
Suvaluck Satumanatpan, Ratana Chuenpagdee

Transformations and transdisciplinarity for the sustainability of Mexican fisheries
Maria Jose Espinosa-Romero 

Transdisciplinary Fisheries Sciences for Blue Justice: The Need to Go Between, Across and Beyond

Iroshani Madu Galappaththi




Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Understanding perceptions, participatory processes, and potential for effective marine management. (2)
Chaired by: Kelly, R. & Mackey, M.

Panel introduction
Involvement of the social sciences in marine management efforts is increasing, with great potential to advise and increase management success. Exploitation, conservation, and user conflict in multi-use marine areas are some of the of issues apparent at the fore of the marine socio-ecological research agenda. Our snapshot of exciting research brings together multiple components that can inform and contribute to this development of effective marine management, and which we hope can provoke interesting and inspiring discussion with our colleagues at the MARE Conference. Within this session, we will:

- Deliver novel and compelling research on social licence, support, and conflict in marine spaces.
- Present specific case studies, including management preferences of local stakeholders, a social network analysis of stakeholders involved in turtle conservation, and the role of media in marine environmental conflict, and
- Outline prospective thinking for effective participatory processes and marine management.


Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and developing best practice
Bianca Haas, Marcus Haward, Jeffrey McGee & Aysha Fleming

Regional Fisheries Management Organizations are key bodies responsible for managing fisheries on the high seas and in areas under national jurisdiction and are essential to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14, ‘Life below water’ SDG Goal 14 addresses the sustainable use and conservation of the oceans and marine resources and is highly linked to other goals, such as poverty reduction (SDG 1) or zero hunger (SDG 2). While millions of people rely on oceans and marine resources for food, income, and well-being, concerns over overfishing (fishing above sustainable levels) have, however, led to criticism of the performance of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations. Performance Reviews provide one possibility to assess and improve the functioning of the organizations, discuss and assess current management approaches, and increase awareness of important issues such as climate change. These assessments emphasize best practices among fisheries management organizations, foster cooperation among them, and have considerable potential to positively influence management processes. Performance assessments can be an important tool to improve not only the performance of the fisheries sector but can also play a relevant role in enhancing ocean governance in terms of the aspirations established by SDG14.


Social licence for marine protected areas
Rachel Kelly

Protected areas are considered one of the most important and valuable tools for conserving biodiversity and protecting natural habitats. Despite increasing evidence on the benefits of marine protected areas (MPAs) for biodiversity conservation and improving socio-economic conditions for local communities, designation and governance of MPAs has proved problematic. Understanding and improving social licence for marine protected areas is expected to reduce conflict and contestation and improve likelihood of MPA ‘success’. Social licence is a concept that reflects community views and expectations on the use and management of natural resources, including the ocean. This presentation will outline the role social licence can play in improving MPA governance and management capacities, using Tasmania, Australia as a case-study. In 2014, as a result of historical opposition and a lack of social licence for MPAs, the Tasmanian State Government issued a moratorium on MPAs. We apply both qualitative and quantitative research methods (including interviews and Q-method) to understand the current status of social licence for MPAs in Tasmania. We identify causes and events and which resulted in a lack of social licence and discuss how social licence for MPAs can be created and improved, aiming to further current understanding of social acceptance and support for marine conservation initiatives (e.g. marine spatial planning, co-management approaches) globally elsewhere.


A Fiduciary Model for Citizen Participation in Marine Space Decision-Making
Lisa Uffman-Kirsch


Conflicts over government decisions on marine space activities are common and geographically widespread. My research focuses on the official decisions reached about marine space projects and the methods utilized to reach them. It considers governmental institutions functioning as fiduciary agent trustees under a public trust model of ocean governance. Legal recognition of marine space as an asset of the public trust corpus, held in common by humankind as trust beneficiaries, can have significant effects in marine project decision-making processes. The model envisions a legal framework encompassing governmental duties of care. I propose one of these procedural duties is upholding a right of participatory consent by stakeholder beneficiaries before reaching decisions with significant risk of breaching duties of care designed to prevent detrimental effect on the marine space and its natural resources. Introduced is a preliminary rubric for decision-making protocol that includes the principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC). The protocol differentiates between stakeholders having a voice and having a say. I hypothesize that embedding degrees of participatory consent into official approval procedures for marine-based activities provides a template for reduced conflict and mutually beneficial, socially-licensed relationships between stakeholders. To test this hypothesis, preliminary results of empirical research with diverse stakeholders in two marine development industries—aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia and Nova Scotia, Canada, along with proposed offshore oil and gas drilling in proximity to Nova Scotia, Canada—will explore whether a positive relationship exists between levels of social license in diverse marine stakeholder relationships and the government decision-making processes utilized. Included is an early overview of potential for and benefits of legal reform in ocean governance.

Limits of participation and rethinking representation in participatory processes 
Maree Fudge

As uses of the marine environment multiple, and set to further expand under ‘Blue Economy’, the problems of sharing access and balancing economic with civil or commons marine values and of implementing integrated marine management are also set to increase. For governments and industries seeking to negotiate access to marine estates and negotiate differing, sometimes seemingly irreconcilable marine values and interests, civil and ‘stakeholder’ participation in both planning and implementation and monitoring has become a largely settled norm and practice.  Benefits promised from participatory processes include the reduction of conflict between sectors or industries and communities (including the so-called ‘social license to operate’), social learning and adaptation to new conditions and increased democratic legitimacy. In practice, however, participatory processes continue to present institutional challenges and deliver questionable democratic legitimacy outcomes. Through analysis of two case studies, one Australia and one Canadian, of efforts at participatory marine governance, I will introduce three ‘conditions’ for democratic legitimacy. These conditions, from classical political representation theory, have been reconceptualised to serve the participatory turn in marine governance. I then propose that the ‘conditions’ provide useful insights into the democratic legitimacy of participatory processes, assess the limits of such processes and introduce fruitful ways to think about institutional responses for policy makers, industry actors and civil society actors.  




Tuesday June 25, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

18:45

Reception at 'The Bridge'
Tuesday June 25, 2019 18:45 - 20:00
De Brug' / 'The Bridge' Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam
 
Wednesday, June 26
 

09:00

Keynote: Dr. Fiona McCormack
Precarity and saltwater environments: inequality, wealth, and opportunity in quota fisheries
Fiona McCormack

This paper considers how Individual Transferable Quota systems (ITQs) give rise to new forms of precarity in saltwater environments. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Aotearoa/New Zealand primarily, though also in Hawaii, Iceland, and Ireland, it documents the transformation of labour practices and fishing economies, the reworking of sustainability, as well as how historic precarity is reconstituted for indigenous and coastal peoples. It then situates ITQ systems within the context of debates over growth in the Blue Economy and environmental precarity, as captured in the concept of the Anthropocene, and traces the newly imagined relationships between people and their sea at various scales (global, national, and local) as well as indicating the prevailing economic and social interests informing each. How, for instance, do ITQ fisheries mesh with the intensification of aquaculture? Or with the drive to establish marine protected areas? What tensions arise in coastal spaces as people grapple with the need to balance wealth generation with community reproduction? What instances of resistance can be observed? The paper also highlights the creative practices that emerge as people struggle to retain their ocean commons as well as carve out opportunities.


Wednesday June 26, 2019 09:00 - 10:00
REC A0.01 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Community-based resource management
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Boli, P.

Codifying kastom in establishing community-based fisheries management in Vanuatu
Dirk J. Steenbergen, Pita Neihapi, Rolenas Tavue Jason Raubani & Neil Andrew

Developing a Supportive Regulatory Environment for Community Based Fisheries Management in Niue and Kiribati - Challenges and Prospects
Ruth Davis

The community-based resource management conundrum
Jan van der Ploeg, Meshach Sukulu & Hugh Govan

Customary law used to secure social and economic benefits for small-scale fishers in West Papua Province, Indonesia
Paulus Boli, Stephanus Mandagi & Irna Sari



Speakers
avatar for Ruth Davis

Ruth Davis

Lecturer, ANCORS, University of Wollongong
I’m a lawyer with an interest in all things ocean! I coordinate the Masters program at ANCORS at the University of Wollongong, where we run postgraduate programs in Maritime Law and Policy and Fisheries Law and Policy. My current research interests focus on coastal fisheries regulation... Read More →



Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Contemporary issues in cruise tourism: the people and the ports
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Holland, J., Römhild-Raviar, J., Weeden, C,

 Contemporary Issues in Cruise Tourism : The People and the Ports 
 Jennifer Holland, Judith Römhild-Raviart & Dr. Clare Weeden 
 University of Brighton & University of Applied Sciences

Over the past two decades cruise tourism has more than doubled in size, from 5 million cruise passengers in 1997 to 28 million in 2018. Cruise industry forecasts reveal continued growth, with the number of vessels operating likely to increase from 264 ships in 2018 to 472 ships by 2027. What does such rapid and persistent growth mean for tourists and port communities? What is the impact of such continued growth on maritime environments, destination communities and economies, and what sustainability challenges and opportunities exist? How do port destinations accommodate such growth, at a time when many places are starting to push back against mass tourism, and what systems are in place to manage the needs of the various stakeholders involved? This session explores these critical questions by examining relations between resident populations and the people who visit, both cruise passengers and non-cruise tourists, and critically discusses the impacts of cruising on the ports.

Science and cruise tourism practices: A cool combination?
Dr. Machiel Lamers


Sustainability in conflict – a study of cruise tourism to Gotland
Sabine Gebert Persson

Understanding sustainable behavioral patterns and perception of cruise tourism impacts based on cruise motivation as clustering criteria
Darko Dimitrovski


 The value of narratives on cruise: Images, destinations and cruisers
G. Sabato

Cruise passenger motivations to go ashore and their satisfaction of the shore experience
M. Thyne 

Exclusionary mobilities: Enclave tourism, private islands and the cruise industry
Weeden, C. 

Navigating uncertainty: Tourists' perceptions of risk in ocean cruising
Jennifer Holland


Speakers
ML

Machiel Lamers

Associate, Wur
avatar for Gaetano Sabato

Gaetano Sabato

Researcher, University of Palermo, Italy
DC

Dr. Clare Weeden

Principal Lecturer Tourism and Marketing, University of Brighton, UK



Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Critical turn in marine spatial planning- whence and whither? (3)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Flannery, W., Toonen, H., Jay, S. & Vince,J.

Critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning - whence and whither?
Wesley Flannery, Hilde Toonen, Stephen Jay & Joanna Vince

While area-based approaches to marine management have a long history, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has risen to become the dominant marine management paradigm. Over the last 10 years, MSP has been championed as a solution to a plethora of marine issues. MSP is promoted as: a process for implementing ecosystem-based management in the marine environment; a mechanism for reducing user conflict; as a means of enhancing environmental protection; and a process for facilitating the expansion of maritime economies. While MSP has become a popular subject of academic scrutiny, there is a dearth of theoretically-informed, social science MSP papers. This has resulted in calls for a critical turn in MSP scholarship. In response to this, a Thematic Series was developed for Maritime Studies. This session is comprised of papers accepted for the Thematic Series and provides a wide range of theoretically-informed reflections on MSP. The papers cover, amongst other things, knowledge production, the socio-spatial construction of the marine environment; social justice; the contested nature of the marine problem and evaluates emerging MSP practices in both the Global North and the Global South. The session, therefore, provides a comprehensive overview of critical thinking within MSP, and will lead to debate and discussion within each panel.


A proposal for an inclusive evaluation approach to realize social benefit from MSP
Riku Varjopuro, Michael Gilek and Fred Saunders

Spatial Justice in Marine Spatial Planning: the relevance of legal geography and law’s ‘spatial turn’ in opening up new perspectives on space, power, and justice.
Mara Ntona and Mika Schroder
Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law & Governance (SCELG), University of Strathclyde


The Ontological Politics of Industry Driven Marine Spatial Planning in India.
Kevin St. Martin and Divya Karnad
Rutgers University

Intertidals: A Deluzian reading of the Shetlands Marine Plan Intertidals: A Deluzian reading of the Shetlands Marine Plan.
Stephen Jay
University of Liverpool

Discussant: 
Hilde Toonen
Wageningen University



Speakers
HT

Hilde Toonen

Assistant Professor, Wageningen University
avatar for Joanna Vince

Joanna Vince

Senior Lecturer in Political Science, University of Tasmania
I am a political scientist based in the School of Social Sciences and a member of the Centre for Marine Socioecology at the University of Tasmania. My area of specialty is oceans governance including sub areas of: Marine spatial planning, Marine Plastic Pollution, IUU fishing, Aquaculture... Read More →



Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Feminist Knowledge poduction in fisheries and coastal research.
Chaired by: Kleiber, D.

Feminist knowledge production in fisheries and coastal research
Danika Kleiber

Feminist approaches and methods can reframe research, improve data collection methods, and change our understanding of fisheries and coastal communities. In this panel we will focus on the different feminist approaches and methods used to produce novel and inclusive research in coastal fisheries. We will draw on studies done at multiple scales (community, regional, and international), using different approaches (participatory, quantitative synthesis), and focused on different aspects of the nexus of gender and fisheries (value-chain labour, livelihood, and gender norms). This panel is designed to share the emerging feminist methods being employed in coastal research, and also provide concrete examples of innovation and practice that can be adopted and adapted.


Counting women and making women’s work count: an estimate of the contributions by women in small-scale marine capture fisheries production to the global economy
Sarah Harper & Rashid Sumaila

The contributions by women in fisheries economies around the world are often overlooked, in part, because ‘fishing’ is narrowly defined as catching fish at sea, from a boat, using specialized gears. Both men and women are involved in fisheries, but often in different roles and activities. Fisheries research, management, and policy have traditionally focused on direct, formal, and paid fishing activities—that are often dominated by men, ignoring those that are indirect, informal and/or unpaid—where women are more concentrated. As part of a panel on Feminist knowledge production in fisheries and coastal research, I will present my research at the intersection of gender, fisheries, and economics, which uses feminist perspectives and insights to highlight the contributions by women to small-scale fisheries catch and associated economic value worldwide. I will discuss the obstacles and challenges in collating sex-disaggregated data at the national and international level while also identifying opportunities to improve the visibility of women in fisheries through better data collection.


Gender norms and relations: implications for agency in coastal livelihoods
Sarah Lawless, Philippa Cohen &  Cynthia MacDougall

Gender and other forms of social differentiation influence individual agency to access, participate in, and benefit from new or improved livelihood opportunities. To examine gender in rural livelihoods, we employed empirical case studies in three communities in Solomon Islands; a small island developing state where livelihoods are predominantly based on fisheries and agriculture. Using the GENNOVATE methodology, a series of focus-groups, we investigated how gender norms and relations influence agency (i.e., the availability of choice and capacity to exercise choice). We find that men are able to pursue a broader range of livelihood activities than women who tend to be constrained by individual perceptions of risk and physical mobility constraints. We find the livelihood portfolios of women and men have diversified from the past. However, diversity of livelihood choices may limit women’s more immediate freedoms to exercise agency. Our findings challenge the broad proposition that livelihood diversification will lead to improvements for agency and overall wellbeing. In community-level decision-making men’s capacity to exercise choice was perceived to be greater in relation to livelihoods and strategic life decisions more broadly. By contrast, capacity to exercise choice within households involved spousal negotiation, and consensus was considered more important than male or female dominance in decision-making. We suggest that better accounting for gendered differences can present substantial opportunity to catalyze the re-negotiation of gender norms and relations; thereby promoting greater individual agency. This study adds weight to the prevailing global insight that livelihood initiatives are more likely to bring about sustained and equitable outcomes if they are designed based on understandings of the distinct ways women and men participate in and experience livelihood opportunities.


The multiple values of gleaning fisheries

Danika Kleiber

Using an interdisciplinary feminist lens this research examines the multiple values of gleaning. Gleaning is a form of fishing practiced in coastal zones throughout the world, but is often left out of the quantification of small-scale fisheries, in part because the fishery is often dominated by women and other marginalized groups who often not counted in fisheries assessments. In this case we define gleaning as the act collecting marine species in intertidal habitats. This study includes a global review and an in-depth case study in the Central Philippines to examine overall trends in the multiple values of gleaning fisheries, and how those values are gendered. In multiple contexts both women and men glean, however in many cases gleaners were predominantly women, often in groups or accompanied by children. Gleaning fisheries also predominantly targeted invertebrates. In the Philippines, communities with larger intertidal areas had more gleaners. Gleaners were also more likely to be from families with greater food insecurity. Gleaning is often characterized as being a reliable form of fishing, and is often turned to when other forms of fishing are unavailable.


Gendered contributions to food and income from small-scale fisheries in Timor-Leste
Alexander Tilley, Ariadna Burgos, Agustinha Duarte, Joctan dos Reis Lopes, Hampus Eriksson & David Mills

Despite a growing realization that both men and women are important actors in small-scale fishing, gendered contributions for food and income from small-scale fisheries are poorly documented globally. Using participatory fishing diaries, focus group discussions, and landings data from 6 communities in Timor-Leste, we unpack gendered contributions to household food and income. Across all communities, women fish with all the same gear types recorded for men, though the proportional contribution of fishing type by time and income varied considerably between locations. Gleaning was the most frequent, and only activity undertaken at all sites, and showed the highest variance in income rates where mean earnings were $1.10 ± 0.53 /fisher hour. Across all fishing activities, women’s income rate was approximately half that of men, with an average income rate of ~$1.06/fisher hour compared to $2.30/fisher hour for men. However, women’s catch rates were significantly more consistent with a 99% catch success rate, compared to 84% for men. Gleaning trips had a 100% catch success rate, and interestingly, was mostly undertaken with a predetermined motivation for either consumption or sale. Our results corroborate the importance of women’s fishing for food security, but also suggest that the reliability and small-scale nature of the fishery outweigh the small sale volumes, and results in higher mean incomes for women than men across most sites and fisheries. We frame these results in the context of the urgent need to strengthen food and nutrition security in Timor-Leste, alongside a tendency to ignore crucial user groups in fisheries and conservation decision-making. Not only are their activities and catches being ignored, but the traditional ecological knowledge of women fishers is a critically underutilized resource for the stewardship and sustainable development in coastal areas.


Speakers
AC

Afrina Choudhury

Research Fellow/Senior Gender Specialist, WorldFish
avatar for Alex Tilley

Alex Tilley

Scientist, WorldFish
My research focuses on understanding how better data can lead to improved food systems and livelihoods in aquatic systems. I develop and test digital reporting systems and automatic analytics to obtain reliable near-real time data for adaptive management and empowerment of small-scale... Read More →


Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Fish for food and nutrition security for the global poor. (1)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Pullin, R. & Scholtens, J.

Fish for food and nutrition security for the global poor
Joeri Scholtens
University of Amsterdam

This triple panel includes 12 papers that interrogate the significance of fish and fisheries for food and nutrition security. It builds on four ongoing research projects that aim to understand and improve the contribution of fish and fisheries to food and nutrition security. The Fish4Food project (focusing on urban poor in India and Ghana); the DriedFishMatters project (focusing on dried fish in South and South-East Asia); the SmallFishFood project (focusing on small indigenous fish in Africa) and the IKAN-F3 project (focusing on Indonesia). These projects, each with their distinct regional focus, aim to understand local-to-global fish value chains of typically underappreciated small, cheap and dried fish, and to develop greater appreciation for their vast contribution to alleviating ‘hidden hunger’ and for their provision of millions of livelihoods. This panel series creates space for sharing and discussing interim results by junior and senior researchers working in these projects.


The biological potential of producing small fish to improve human health in African inland fisheries
Jeppe Kolding, Paul A.M. van Zwieten, Felix Marttin, Simon Funge-Smith and Florence Poulain

Making small fish visible in food and nutrition security to combat malnutrition in low and middle income countries
Marian Kjellevold, Amy Atter, Inger Aakre and Johannes Pucher

From feeding the billions to nourishing nations: reconstructing the narrative of fish as food. 
Joeri Scholtens, Shakuntala H. Thilsted, Eddie Allison, Jeppe Kolding, Derek Johnson, Ragnhild Overa, Maria Jose Palladines Barragan, Marloes Kraan, Maarten Bavinck. 


Speakers
avatar for Jeppe Kolding

Jeppe Kolding

Professor, University of Bergen
MK

Marian Kjellevold

Head of research, Food security and nutrition, Institute of marine research



Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Labelling and certification
Chaired by: Penca, J.

Navigating through a sea of indicators: The impression, implementation and impact of sustainability certification for salmon aquaculture.
Vilde Steiro Amundsen 
NTNU Social Research

Despite the proliferation of the concept of ‘sustainability’, there lacks a consensus as to what it actually entails and how it can be accomplished. Still, it is often spoken of as if it were a specific goal to be achieved through environmental conservation and ‘the social stuff’. As with other all-embracing umbrella terms (e.g. globalization and culture), its actual meaning emerges through the content that the concept is given when operationalized. In the SustainFish project, we have explored an important source of content for sustainability in aquaculture: sustainability certification.

Certification schemes develop standards consisting of criteria in the form of indicators, with which aquaculture companies need to comply in order to become certified. These indicators must be measurable, transferable and comparable, allowing the same standard to be applied across different companies and countries. While standards emanate from the idea of objectivity, it is important to keep in mind that they are both made and managed by people. By employing standardization as a means towards sustainability, an operationalized understanding of the concept is formed through different stages of translation.

Firstly, translating an idea into indicators involves stakeholders with different motives navigating the many challenges and tradeoffs of ‘sustainable aquaculture’, resulting in an array of standards that together produce an impression of sustainability. This is further translated through the implementation of the standards, where the aquaculture companies must interpret and adapt them to each organizational and geographical context. Lastly, the meaning of sustainability is translated through the impact of certification, as the implemented measures will necessarily bring about different outcomes depending on the local environmental, social and economic conditions.

Exploring the impression, implementation and impact of these standards provides valuable insight into the role of certification in making the aquaculture industry more sustainable, whatever that may entail.


Shared governance of seas? Enhanced mandatory food labelling as a sustainability tool
Jerneja Penca

There is scope for the rising profile of the oceans in policy-making and among the public to impact on the governance model. While the private sector and the scientific community are making their inroads onto the governments’ ordinances in the management of oceans and seas, the involvement of citizens, in their role as consumers, remains under-explored.
This article discusses the involvement of this group of stakeholders through examining a case study of fisheries and seafood products. The article considers the tools available to consumers in order to bear part of the burden of supporting sustainability in fisheries alongside governments, fishers and retailers, and argues that these are insufficient. As an alternative to expanding ecolabelling, the potential of properly designed mandatory food labelling is highlighted as a viable policy tool which targets the consumers of seafood in the markets of developed countries. Elements of desirable labelling requirements are discussed, in a non-exhaustive way, balancing between the consumer benefit, practical viability and scientific knowledge. The modes of implementation are also outlined, noting in particular the role of traceability, data sharing and modern technologies in that context. The article puts special emphasis on the proposals for improving the EU food labelling requirements, in view of the EU’s economic potential and political ambition to deliver on sustainability in its waters and influence global fisheries regimes. However, using the EU as a reference, rather than an end-point, the article is relevant for global discussions on the potential role of an overlooked stakeholder (the consumer) and a policy tool (mandatory labelling) for greater sustainability in the context of shared responsibility among stakeholders – a feature that characterises governance of various other regimes (human rights, decent labour), particularly in countries with developed markets and strong governance structures.


The systemic impacts of the Marine Stewardship Council: socio-economic effects of fisheries certification
Amanda Lejbowicz  & Katie Longo

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an internationally renowned fisheries certification program, initiated to contribute to efforts to reduce unsustainable fishing and to safeguard seafood supplies for the future. A key, but unexplored, attribute of the program is the multi-stakeholder process that is typical of most fisheries engaging in the process. We argue that this component of program plays a key role in engendering improvement in fisheries.
The experience of the last 20 years has shown that successful fisheries certification processes and high performing improvement projects are characterised by active collaboration and formal partnerships between stakeholders, including fishers, processors, retailers, government, NGOs and scientists. The consequence of it has been the implementation of actions driving improvements in the management of many fisheries, with some progressing to become certified.
However, the socio-economic benefits that result from the multi-stakeholders partnerships during certification processes and fisheries improvement projects are still underexplored. Non-market incentives, such as investment opportunities, increased collaboration among stakeholders or improved transparency in the fisheries management are among the unintended aspects of the MSC certification that we invite a diverse range of experts to brainstorm on. Their experience with fisheries of different sizes and natures will bring new angles of reflexion about the potential of the MSC to be used as a tool, not only to preserve or restore fisheries, but also to drive socio-economic improvements in fisheries.






Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

llegal, unregulated and unreported fishing: who's in charge?
Chaired by: Vandergeest, P.

How illegal ‘saiko’ fishing is fuelling the collapse of Ghana’s fisheries 
Remy Käller

Saiko is the local name for a particularly destructive form of illegal fishing, where Chino-Ghanaian trawlers target the staple catch of Ghanaian canoe fishers. It is then transferred to specially adapted canoes out at sea, and sold back to the fishing communities. This used to be a practice whereby canoes would buy the unwanted by-catch of industrial vessels. However, the practice has developed into a lucrative industry. These catches, which often contain juvenile fish, are landed by the saiko canoes for onward sale to local markets. This has severe implications for Ghana’s small-scale fishing industry - which is critical to food security and provides significantly more jobs than the saiko industry. The saiko industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, at a time of severe declines in the catches of artisanal fishers. In 2017, around 80 saiko canoes landed the equivalent of over 55% of the landings of the entire artisanal sector. With the capacity to hold around 26 tonnes of fish, an average saiko canoe lands in a single trip the equivalent of approximately 450 artisanal fishing trips. Landings through Saiko are almost twice as high as the official landings by the industrial trawl fleet. In this presentation a short film will be shown.

Where’s the governor? IUU fishing and the regulation of seafood trade in Australia
Sonia Garcia Garcia

The emergence of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing over the past two decades galvanized a variety of actors to advance in the regulation of high seas fishing in the name of the conservation and sustainable use of fishery resources. This process enabled the introduction of environmental provisions into international trade from the perspective of legality, which has proven more palatable to the trade regime than environmental stewardship. The European Union and the United States have led the establishment of legality as a proxy for different environmental and social accountability concerns and have implemented unilateral trade measures to prevent seafood sourced from illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing from entering their markets through traceability schemes. This doctoral research explores the possibility that other market economies may adopt similar approaches. I use Foucaultian discourse analysis to analyze the regulation of the Australian seafood at the point of sale from an interactive governance approach, asking: how has illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing been constructed in Australia? By whom and for what purpose? What are the implications of this construction for the current regulation of seafood labelling and traceability? The results provide insights into the possibilities and obstacles for anti- illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing measures being used as trade related fisheries conservation measures in other countries. This research is also intended as a reminder that interrogating the construction of the subjects and the objects of governance, as well as the underlying rationalities of government remains key to the analysis of governance as a political process.


Sustaining fish and fishworkers? Exploring governance mechanisms to address human rights in
the Thai Fisheries reform after the EU’s IUU ‘yellow card’

Alin Kadfak, Sebastian Linke & Than Pole

Revelations of ‘modern slavery’ in the Thai fishing industry have received widespread international
attention through media and NGO investigations exposing widespread trafficking and slave-like
practices for migrant fishworkers. The international scandal influenced the European Union in 2015
to give a yellow card to Thailand, a warning indicating possible economic sanctions unless Illegal,
Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing practices are eliminated. International media and NGO
reports have influenced the EU to for the first-time mandate fishworkers’ rights along with improved
sustainable fishing practices in the present fisheries reform program in Thailand. In response, the Thai
government introduced the most extensive fisheries reform program the country ever experienced,
addressing human rights alongside the sustainability of fish catches. The increasing concerns of both
aspects, environmental sustainability and a human rights approach for migrant workers on Thai fishing
boats, have for the first-time evoked a number of activities, initiatives and partnerships among
environmental organisations and human rights actors, as well as international retailers (e.g. Seafood
Taskforce) to solve the IUU problem in Thailand. In this paper we examine how these various actors
influenced the Thai fisheries reform, asking ‘How has the EU-initiated reform of Thai fisheries brought
together new domestic and international actors to influence, negotiate and form alliances in
rearranged governance mechanisms?’. Our paper aims to contribute to an emerging dialogue where
sustainable fisheries management is no-longer only concerned with the overexploitation of marine
seafood but also with the evolution of rights-based legislations as exemplified by the attempts to
reduce human rights violations in the Thai fishing industry.


Why Does Illegal Unreported Unregulated fishing (IUUF) in Indonesia persist?: Examining the Effectiveness of the International Fisheries Regime’s contributions in eradicating IUU fishing in Indonesia
Nilmawati Nilmawati

The measures adopted in the efforts to eradicate IUUF in Indonesia emerged from and is rooted in international fisheries instruments. Since 1985, Indonesia has ratified and adopted both legally and non-legally binding existing international fisheries instruments, and has tried to comply with the stipulated rules ever since. This includes, joining three Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) as a full member, as well as initiating and participating actively in regional cooperation to combat IUU fishing. However, despite Indonesia’s considerable international efforts, including regional participation with other Southeast Asian countries in combating IUU fishing, IUU fishing operations in Indonesian territorial waters and Economic Exclusive zone (IEEZ) by both foreign and domestic entities still exist. Therefore, this paper attempts to explore the extent to which the international fisheries regime has contributed to IUU fishing eradication in Indonesia. The purpose is to understand what impact the international measures being adopted and implemented in Indonesia have had in terms of reducing IUU fishing. Through the lens of regime effectiveness theory, it is hoped a greater understanding of this tenacious problem can be achieved. This exploration aims to uncover the existing gaps and challenges for Indonesia which hinders full implementation of IUU fishing initiatives and hence the persistence of IUU fishing.






Speakers
avatar for Sonia Garcia Garcia

Sonia Garcia Garcia

PhD Candidate, University of Technology Sydney
avatar for Nilmawati

Nilmawati

PhD Student, University of Amsterdam (UvA)
I am a PhD student working to understand how fisheries regime located at different levels of governance, affects the state of IUU fishing in Indonesian waters


Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Researching people and the sea: methodologies and traditions (1)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Ounanian, K., Phillipson, J., Gustavsson, M. & White, C.

Researching people and the sea: methodologies and traditions
Kristen Ounanian, Madeleine Gustavsson, Jeremy Phillipson & Carole White
Aalborg University, University of Exeter, Newcastle University, University of East Anglia

Through a panel covering four sessions of papers, we aim to take stock of the social science methodologies, roles and traditions for researching people and the sea. Calls for social science research in marine and fisheries contexts have never been more prominent, with social sciences seen as part of the solution for understanding and addressing complex and intractable challenges, whilst also bringing a strategic orientation to natural science perspectives. Social scientists have therefore increasingly shed light onto the often ill-defined social dimensions of the marine environment and fisheries, in a field that has traditionally been heavily framed by the environmental and natural sciences. To date there has been little explicit consideration focused on critically and reflexively exploring the experiences of deploying, innovating or adapting social science methods and approaches within marine and fisheries contexts, or in terms of their combination with other approaches within interdisciplinary research. Therefore, this multi-session panel aims to bring together a variety of epistemological and methodological perspectives from across the (non-economic) social sciences, including the full repertoire of qualitative, mixed and quantitative approaches, to highlight particular challenges and insights gained in researching people and the sea. The eighteen papers in these sessions are divide over four themes:

- Clearing interdisciplinary hurdles
- Refreshing & reinvigorating methods
- Co-production & Co-design
- Experiences from the field: positionality, ethics, and reflection

We have collated papers focused on understanding the interactions between people and the sea through different methods and methodological approaches; the paper submissions represent novel approaches—the successes and failures—and demonstrate reflexivity in marine social science. Papers will be presented in traditional format with discussants.


Session 1: Clearing interdisciplinary hurdles

Methodological fish soup: blending environmental humanities into marine social science research
 Anna Antonova 

Lessons learned for conducting interdisciplinary science to inform offshore renewable energy planning
Tayla ten Brink, Julia Livermore, Tracey Dalton 

Theoretical and methodological perspectives to understand trade relationships within marine systems
Elizabeth Drury O’Neill, Bianca González-Mon &  Sofia Käll 

Speakers
avatar for Anna Antonova

Anna Antonova

Researcher in Residence, Rachel Carson Center
Researcher in Residence at the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society at LMU Munich
MP

Maria Pafi

PhD Environmental Planning, Queen's University Belfast
avatar for Talya ten Brink

Talya ten Brink

PhD Candidate, University of Rhode Island
Coastal and Marine Policy, Offshore Wind, Fisheries under Clinate Change, Place Attachment, Marine Spatial Planning, Resilent Coastlines, Socio-ecological Research



Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Small-small fisheries livelihoods under threat: white elephants, aquaculture and conservation.
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment


Chaired by: Msomphora, M.

Blueprints, white elephants and red herrings in small-scale fisheries
Hampus Eriksson, Jan van der Ploeg,  Margaret Batalofo & Dirk Steenbergen

Small-scale fisheries at odds with conservation expansion: A critique of South Africa’s Small-scale Fisheries Policy from a coastal governance perspective
Philile Mbatha

Fisheries and aquaculture management: Experiences from small scale fisheries in Norway
Mbachi Ruth Msomphora

Adapting to environmental and institutional changes in Small-Scale Fisheries Networks
Blanca González-Mon, Emilie Lindkvist, Maja Schüter & Bodin Örjan.

Speakers
BG

Blanca González-Mon

PhD student, Stockholm Resilience Center
MR

Mbachi Ruth Msomphora

UiT The Arctic University of Norway



Wednesday June 26, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

12:00

Lunch
Wednesday June 26, 2019 12:00 - 13:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Blue Justice for small-scale fisheries in the context of fishing opportunities and markets: A lens for SDG14b. (1)
Chaired by: Said, A., & Pascual-Fernandez, J.

Blue Justice for small-scale fisheries in the context of fishing opportunities and markets: A lens for SDG14b
Alicia Said & Jose Pascual-Fernández
Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer & Universidad de La Laguna


The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has raised the profile of small-scale fisheries through SDG14b, a target that calls for the provision of ‘access of small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets’. Considered as /a historic moment for small-scale fisheries, their recognition in the SDGs is an important milestone that sets an important focus on how such target ought to be achieved. Reaching this milestone requires overhauls in governance structures and management systems that have traditionally favoured other segments of the fishing fleets, mainly industrial and large-scale fisheries supposedly more “efficient”. This is particularly relevant in the era of “Blue Growth” that in many of its formulations exclude fisheries, and particularly small-scale fisheries (SSF), privileging new sectors, potentially increasing the challenges for SSF. Hence, achieving access to fishing opportunities and markets, a.k.a. SDG14b, would require adjustments in resource governance and fisheries management systems in all sectors, and development programs that embed concepts like human rights, social justice and equity as key elements of what we refer to as Blue Justice. In this session, we seek to provide case studies from around the world to showcase the governance challenges and opportunities concerning the planned or accomplished implementation of SDG14b, along with lessons about the importance of focusing strongly on the issues and concerns related to SSF as we strive to achieve the overall SDGs. The session invites experts from different regions to bring together a global discussion on governance transformations in the broader picture to decipher challenges and inform new policies that bring about blue justice in ocean and resource governance.


Bluefin tuna quota access for small-scale fisheries in the Canary Islands: fighting for recognition
Jose Pascual Fernández, Carmelo Dorta Morales, Álvaro Díaz de la Paz

Bluefin tuna has been a target for small-scale fisheries in the Canary Islands since many decades ago, as historical documents assert. The catches of bluefin tuna by these fleets had been strong, achieving a mean of a 16% of the total catches of bluefin tuna in Spain from 1965 to 1980. After this period the percentage of catches of the canarian fleet diminished strongly for a variety of reasons, including the reduction of the stocks caused by the development of purse seiners and long line fleets targeting this specie in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. When in 2008 quotas for this specie were established, small-scale fleets in Spain, and the Canary Islands in particular, got negligible quotas while a small number of purse seiners could concentrate most of the fishing rights. Especially in the last years, a strong conflict has developed between small-scale fisher organizations in the region, regional government and the national government in charge of distributing quotas. Scientific advise has had an important role to highlight the inconsistencies of the national policies due to the historical records of catches by small-scale fleets, added to the evaluation of their economic and environmental comparative benefits. In this paper we will analyse the key elements of these processes, taking into account national and EU regulations, especially Art. 17 of the CFP, and the role of small-scale fisher organizations and scientist. As a consequence of this conflict, the quota for bluefin tuna in the Canary Islands has consistently increased in the last years.


Strengthening the Science Policy Interface: Using the SSF Guidelines to Inform Inclusive and Just Achievement of SDG Target 14.b
Joe Zelasney, et al.

An essential component of FAO’s work to promote implementation of the SSF Guidelines involves strengthening the science-policy interface by sharing knowledge and supporting policy reform, with the aim to ensure that national and regional policies embrace the principles of the SSF Guidelines and facilitate achieving SDG 14.b. The presentation will introduce the international governance framework for fisheries, focusing on the SSF Guidelines, and related instruments and processes that support and inform inclusive and just “Blue Growth” development, as well as initiatives to achieve SDG target 14.b. The presentation will further discuss findings from a FAO Technical Paper, “Supporting application of Chapter 7 of the SSF Guidelines – Value Chains, Post-Harvest, and Trade”, featuring case studies that highlight successful initiatives, and showcase governance challenges and opportunities to enhance small-scale fisheries to achieve SDG target 14.b in a way that is inclusive and just.


Small-scale fisheries access to fishing opportunities in Europe: a new hope? 
Alicia Said, et al.

The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has raised the profile of small-scale fisheries through SDG14b, a target that calls for the provision of ‘access of small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets’. Considered as a historic moment for small-scale fisheries, their recognition in the SDGs is an important milestone that sets an important focus on how such target ought to be achieved. In certain cases, reaching this milestone requires overhauls in governance structures and management systems that have traditionally favoured other segments of the fishing fleets, mainly industrial and large-scale fisheries. In the EU, on the other hand, the existing Article 17 of Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) provides a legal basis for improving the situation of small-scale fisheries. While mostly the allocation of quota within member states is based on historical catches, the 2013 reform of the CFP introduced Article 17 which requires Member States to use transparent and objective criteria including those of an environmental, social and economic nature when allocating fishing opportunities, and to effectively provide incentives to SSF fishing vessels. Adapting the governance and management systems to better account for all types of fisheries requires systemic research that looks at the broader picture to decipher the challenges, and inform new policies. This article focuses on the situation of the allocation of fishing opportunities in Europe and the access regime for small-scale fishers, to evaluate the potential of individual countries and ultimately the EU in achieving the SDG14b. Specifically, the paper seeks to identify reasons that hinder wider adoption of Article 17 of the CFP that sets the ground for transformations in the allocation systems at the national level to explore systemic challenges of SSF governance and viability.









Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Critical turn in marine spatial planning- whence and whither? (4)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Flannery, W., Toonen, H. Jay, S. & Vince, J.

Critical turn in Marine Spatial Planning - whence and whither?
Wesley Flannery, Hilde Toonen, Stephen Jay & Joanna Vince

While area-based approaches to marine management have a long history, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has risen to become the dominant marine management paradigm. Over the last 10 years, MSP has been championed as a solution to a plethora of marine issues. MSP is promoted as: a process for implementing ecosystem-based management in the marine environment; a mechanism for reducing user conflict; as a means of enhancing environmental protection; and a process for facilitating the expansion of maritime economies. While MSP has become a popular subject of academic scrutiny, there is a dearth of theoretically-informed, social science MSP papers. This has resulted in calls for a critical turn in MSP scholarship. In response to this, a Thematic Series was developed for Maritime Studies. This session is comprised of papers accepted for the Thematic Series and provides a wide range of theoretically-informed reflections on MSP. The papers cover, amongst other things, knowledge production, the socio-spatial construction of the marine environment; social justice; the contested nature of the marine problem and evaluates emerging MSP practices in both the Global North and the Global South. The session, therefore, provides a comprehensive overview of critical thinking within MSP, and will lead to debate and discussion within each panel.


1. Spatial Justice in Marine Spatial Planning: the relevance of legal geography and law’s ‘spatial turn’ in opening up new perspectives on space, power, and justice, 
Mara Ntona and Mika Schroder

2. The Ontological Politics of Industry Driven Marine Spatial Planning in India, 
Kevin St. Martin and Divya Karnad

3. Intertidals A Deluzion Reading of the Shetlands Marine PlanIntertidals: A Deluzian reading of the Shetlands Marine Plan
Stephen Jay

Discussant: 
Hilde Toonen



Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Illuminating Hidden Harvests: The Contributions of Small-Scale Fisheries to Sustainable Development.
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Mancha-Cisneros, M.

Illuminating Hidden Harvests: The Contributions of Small-Scale Fisheries to Sustainable Development.
Maria del Mar Mancha-Cisneros
Duke University

Small-scale fisheries (SSF) employ over 90 percent of fishers and fish workers worldwide and, among these, 96 percent live in developing countries where they produce almost as much fish for direct domestic consumption as large-scale fisheries. Despite these contributions, SSF do not receive enough attention in policy. Furthermore, big questions remain: what is the importance of SSF for food and nutrition security, local economies and poverty eradication? How are the overall benefits generated by SSF distributed and how can they be enhanced? What are the key drivers of change in these sectors, including both threats and opportunities? The Illuminating Hidden Harvests Project (IHH), a partnership between the Food and Agriculture Organization, WorldFish, and Duke University, aims to of capture and quantify the contributions of SSF to the three pillars of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) at local and global levels. Using a diversity of methods, including case studies, global datasets, and thematic studies, this will allow the quantification of key indicators on a global scale and will highlight local examples where a global synthesis is perhaps not yet possible. This will also underpin a more informed inclusion of SSF in the international policy-making process. In addition, the results of IHH will support the design of a participatory framework for the implementation and monitoring of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines) around the world. By highlight the role that SSFs play in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular SDG 1 (no poverty) and SDG 2 (food security), the IHH research aims to increase the support from policy-makers for the implementation of the SSF Guidelines.

Literature/article presentations:

The need for expanding our understanding of the social, economic, and environmental contributions and impacts of SSF to sustainable development.
David Mills

IHH Project design: Methodological process, technical issues & challenges to documenting the contributions and impacts of SSF at a global scale.
Maria del Mar Mancha-Cisneros

Leveraging information on the contributions and impacts of SSF towards the implementation of the SSF Guidelines.
Nicole Franz


Speakers
MM

Mar Mancha-Cisneros

Postdoctoral Associate, Duke University
Technical Lead for the Illuminating Hidden Harvests (IHH) project (https://www.worldfishcenter.org/hidden-harvests)



Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Indicators and methods for governance and wellbeing
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Weines, J.


Mobilizing Community Assets in Rural Coastal Regions: Analysis of Asset Mapping Initiatives in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador
Brennan Lowery

Harnessing individual and collective action towards empowered marine conservation: determinants and implications
Ana Nuno, Litoney Matos, Kristian Metcalfe, Brendan Godley & Annette Broderick

Using game-based learning to understand fisheries: The Case of the Overnight Closure of the Norwegian Inshore Cod Commons in 1989.
Jørn Weines

The different ways in deriving wellbeing from the coast and its implications for stewardship
Tomas Chaigneau

The world turned upside down': Socio-economic impacts of a negotiated transition to an alternative mussel production system in the Dutch Wadden Sea
Dr. Nathalie A. Steins, Dr. Hans van Oostenbrugge, Arie Mol & Sarah Smith

Speakers
avatar for Nathalie Steins

Nathalie Steins

Wageningen Marine Research
Social scientist with international and multi-perspective experience in sustainable fisheries management. International fisheries management work experience includes Ireland, United Kingdom, USA, Suriname, Guyana, Myanmar and Kenya. Interested in: marine common pool resource management... Read More →
avatar for Jørn Weines

Jørn Weines

PhD Candidate, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
PhD Candidate at the Norwegian College of Fishery Science.Historian, MA on local ecological knowledge as source material for historical research. Now working on game-based learning in fisheries education, focusing on games for exploring all dimensions of sustainability.



Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Methods for Values and Valuation in Coastal and Marine Realms
Chaired by: Johnson, D.

Assessing the value of the coast for human well-being: a case study from Plymouth (Devon, UK)
Rebecca Shellock, Tobias Börger, Caroline Hattam, Mathew White, Lewis Elliott, Joanne Garrett & Obioha Chukwunyere Ukoumunne.

The concept of well-being is gaining traction in the fields of environmental management and conservation and is central to the ecosystem service approach to decision-making. Despite the rapid development of these fields of research and policy, there is no consensus on the definition of well-being or valuation method(s) upon which to base policy evaluations for well-being. This research examines this issue by comparing two methods for valuing the well-being benefits from marine and coastal environments. The first is a more traditional and frequently used preference-based (‘ex-ante’) method, the Contingent Valuation Method. The second is a novel method which relies on psychological states and ‘ex-post’ experiences, the Life Satisfaction Approach. An empirical comparison of the methods was undertaken in the context of assessing the impact of a coastal intervention on the well-being of local residents. This was made possible by a local coastal regeneration project (Teat’s Hill, Plymouth, Devon) and enabled an evaluation before (T1) and after (T2) the regeneration (n=653). A repeat cross-sectional survey was used to value the impact of the regeneration on the well-being of local residents using the two different methods, the Contingent Valuation Method at T1 and the Life Satisfaction Approach across T1 and T2. First, the talk will present the findings from the two methods and compare the well-being estimates derived. Second, it will discuss the complementarity and commensurability of the two methods and highlight avenues for future well-being research. The research presents new findings which have important implications for the ecosystem service agenda and the use of well-being research in environmental policy, planning and decision-making.


The Fish Market at the Bottom of the World: Learning from Sydney Fish Market’s Past and Future
Elspeth Probyn


Fish markets have been the central agora in maritime cities for thousands of years, and yet they remain strangely under-researched. They are fascinating spaces of multiple forms of interaction. In one often noisy and smelly space, they bring together fish buyers and processors, ordinary consumers, and increasingly hordes of tourists – the Sydney Fish Market attracts more tourists than the Great Barrier Reef. Recently, the NSW Government announced that it would spend $250 million to relocate and redevelop the Sydney Fish Market (SFM) starting in 2019. The Danish firm, 3XN, awarded the contract, promises “a working fish market, an amenity for the city, a cultural destination, an urban connector”.
In this paper, I consider Sydney Fish Market as an exemplar of why fish markets are intellectually compelling for their admixture of economics and culture, as being both the market and the market place. The SFM (the largest fish market in the Southern Hemisphere) moved to its present location in Pyrmont, wedged between concrete factories in the 1950s. It has taken decades of haggling to persuade the owners and occupiers to move. In this it is akin to the more well-known Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market which has only just moved after decades of squabbling. Drawing on my ethnographic research and interviews with key players – buyers, fishers, processors, consumers and tourists – I consider how the fish market works to highlight both the anthropogenic crisis of the oceans and fishing as well as the ways it works to produce an important conviviality, an enmeshment of different human and non-human actors.


Marine Cultural Ecosystem Services: the sea as a cultural environment
Niccolò Bassan & Francesco Musco

Human culture and the sea are strictly linked. Indeed, coastal and marine environment provide significant benefits to humans often described as Ecosystem Services (ES). A category of ES identified by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) are Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) that can be defined as “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences”. Cultural benefits derived from experiencing marine ecosystems can be connected to recreation, religion, spiritual enrichment, aesthetic experiences, art, heritage and identity. These cultural elements are important building blocks for human existence and heritage. However, CES suffer from poor characterization or valuation often because of their intangibility. Neglecting cultural values and services in the design of interventions can produce unintended consequences and can impede the achievement of program goals during the planning processes. During planning and managing activities, in fact, these values make an important contribution in the delivering of high level objectives for the sea space, in particular social objectives related to human well-being and quality of life and, as ecological values, cultural values can be threatened by maritime and coastal activities. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) can be a useful tool to address the uncertainty of these ES and help to better manage the cultural value associated to the sea. Presently we still have insufficient knowledge of the entire range of values the sea provides and because of this is common to focus on the economic values provided by the sea (such as fishing, shipping, offshore wind farming and so on), while it is less common to regard the sea as a place defined by cultural meanings and history. Through a literature review and a case study analysis this paper will try to assess this approach in the Gulf of Napoli, Italy.


Assessing non-monetary values of the modern seashore forager
E.S. Morris-Webb, S. Jenkins & F. St.John

In recent years the press has drawn more attention than ever to the ‘foraging’ for wild products in the UK, Europe and around the World. Top chefs have heralded their favourite sustainable foraged foods and celebrities have televised their ‘desert island’ survival experiences. Journalists have explored cities with urban foragers and the health benefits of eating seaweeds picked from British shores. However, this is not a new trend. Humans are hunter gatherers that have collected, or ‘gleaned’ seashore products for millennia. Traditional uses include food, bait, cosmetics, medicines and even fertilisers and kelp ash (for glass manufacture). Rarely do policy makers of developed nations consider this traditional activity as either economically or socially valuable. But in an age where most things we want or need are a few clicks away, why do so many still seek the thrill of finding their own food? Are foragers and wild product gatherers simply filling their purses and fridges, or is there a deeper meaning to foraging that adds something to the modern gatherer’s well-being, or takes them back to their ancestral or cultural roots? How important are these rights of passage to modern coastal communities, and how essential will they be to future generations? This research finds the modern seashore gatherers of Wales and explores methods to help them find their voice to express what gathering means to them. Mixed methods utilising questionnaires, standard subjective well-being scales and semi-structured interviews provide an insight into the demographic of the modern seashore gatherer, explore what they collect and reveal what their activities really mean to them.

Speakers
NB

Niccolò Bassan

University Iuav of Venice & CORILA
avatar for Rebecca Shellock

Rebecca Shellock

PhD Researcher, Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the University of Exeter


Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Perceptions and values of marine resources and their uses in relation to conservation management areas, practices and target species. (1)
Chaired by: Breckwoldt, A., Fache, E. & Ferse, S.


The relevance of offshore fisheries for coastal marine resource use and management in Fiji
Annette Breckwoldt & Henryk Alff

This paper seeks to investigate possible interlinkages between oceanic and coastal fisheries with regard to the respective (over-) exploitation of fish resources. The latter has drastic cumulative socio-economic consequences for significant proportions of the island populations, relying heavily on these natural assets. In Fiji, the largest part of the population is involved to some extent in coastal and/or oceanic fisheries. With the establishment of Exclusive Economic Zones in the 1970s, at least officially, a set of rights and obligations regarding marine resource access, use and management in the designated zones were allocated to states like Fiji. Fiji’s government used these rights on territorial waters both for limiting the country’s own fishing efforts and, first and foremost, for extracting revenue from the granting of fisheries access rights to foreign fleets against fee payments. These large fleets are usually catching pelagic species, such as tuna, for global export. Hopes that this measure would generate a constant flow of income have largely not materialized, and illegal fishing by foreign fleets is commonplace. While increased exploitation affects the Fijian domestic tuna fishing fleet, the direct and indirect socio-cultural importance of and responses towards tuna stock (over-) exploitation for local Fijian communities are less obvious and remain under-investigated. This paper therefore investigates this inshore-offshore-linkage and the connected vulnerabilities, dependencies and livelihood adaptations of coastal fishing communities. An explorative, multi-sited ethnographic research approach (incl. interviews, participant observation, focus groups) will provide vital insights into the responses vis-à-vis increasingly tense resource availability and will be particularly helpful in discussing a) sustainable fisheries management solutions in the face of national food security concerns, and b) how mitigating vulnerabilities based on marine resource dependency/depletion may result in new vulnerabilities (e.g. affecting social cohesion).


Igniting New Development Trajectories: the Role of Coastal Erosion and Accretion in Southern Kerala
Charles-Alexis Couvreur
 
Using qualitative evidence from Thiruvananthapuram district (Kerala), this paper focuses on
the role of coastal erosion and accretion in the various transformations taking place in the
artisanal fisheries of southern Kerala.

I first highlight that my informants do not separate the coastal land from the inshore sea when delineating their perceived livelihood. As a result, I show that erosion and accretion naturally become the starting point of a chain of development processes with (very) different trajectories. To illustrate this, I consider Anchuthengu area as a first case study. There, the construction of a fishing harbour demanded by the fishing community has acted as the starting point to such erosion/accretion dynamics. Right north of the harbour, I narrate how the loss of the
shore led to the adoption of more mechanized craft and wider-reach gear, known as Ring Seine. Causing tensions with neighbouring and less impacted villages on the ground of their sustainability, they however contributed to quick economic and social improvements for their users and their families. South of the harbour, the accreted land has allowed families to expand their houses and will, in the future, be home to a locally much awaited touristic resort. It is also the site where a major industrial group is building a facility for its development activities further south. This empirical material thus also points to multiple dimensions of land. As the shore, understood as an occupational and cultural commons, vanishes north, it ‘re-appears’ south as a beach (touristic purpose) or as coastal land for infrastructure.

I conclude by reflecting on how the making and unmaking of the coast in southern Kerala informs academic discussions on the relationship(s) between nature and society.
 
 
Transitioning hunters to conservationists: challenges to developing wildlife tourism in a whale shark hunting village in the Philippines
Jackie Ziegler, Gonzalo Araujo, Jessica Labaja, Sally Snow, Philip Dearden
 
The success of incentive-based conservation projects meeting conservation goals is highly dependent on the local context. Understanding the local context and identifying potential barriers to conservation is therefore essential when planning an incentive-based conservation approach. This paper uses a case study approach to identify potential barriers to success of a planned whale shark tourism development in one of the largest ex-whale shark hunting villages in the Philippines. Prior to the 1998 whale shark hunting ban, national and international non-governmental organizations, government agencies and researchers attempted to transition the hunters in Guiwanon to whale shark tourism. However, this project failed due to lack of political will and poor planning. Today, the mayor has expressed renewed interest in developing whale shark tourism and the ex-hunters would be given first priority for employment in this tourism venture. We interviewed N=25 fishers in Guiwanon, including all ex-whale shark hunters, regarding their perceptions of the whale shark hunting ban, the whale sharks, and whale shark tourism (past and future). Key barriers to conservation at this site include human-wildlife conflict with the whale sharks and negative perceptions of tourism and government agencies, including significant distrust and anger. Despite these issues, most respondents were willing to work in tourism if given the opportunity. However, it is critical that ex-hunters and other community members be included in the planning, implementation and management of any tourism activities developed in Guiwanon. Future initiatives should also include community education and outreach to ensure conservation outcomes are met. This study provides important lessons learned for the conservation community with respect to community-based development, natural resource management, and conservation planning, specifically the long-term impacts of poorly planned incentive-based conservation initiatives and policy decisions.
 
 
 

Speakers
avatar for Annette Breckwoldt

Annette Breckwoldt

post-doc, Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research


Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Researching people and the sea: methodologies and traditions. (2)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Ounanian, K., Phillipson, J., Gustavsson, M. & White, C.

Researching people and the sea: methodologies and traditions
Kristen Ounanian, Madeleine Gustavsson, Jeremy Phillipson & Carole White
Aalborg University, University of Exeter, Newcastle University, University of East Anglia

Through a panel covering four sessions of papers, we aim to take stock of the social science methodologies, roles and traditions for researching people and the sea. Calls for social science research in marine and fisheries contexts have never been more prominent, with social sciences seen as part of the solution for understanding and addressing complex and intractable challenges, whilst also bringing a strategic orientation to natural science perspectives. Social scientists have therefore increasingly shed light onto the often ill-defined social dimensions of the marine environment and fisheries, in a field that has traditionally been heavily framed by the environmental and natural sciences. To date there has been little explicit consideration focused on critically and reflexively exploring the experiences of deploying, innovating or adapting social science methods and approaches within marine and fisheries contexts, or in terms of their combination with other approaches within interdisciplinary research. Therefore, this multi-session panel aims to bring together a variety of epistemological and methodological perspectives from across the (non-economic) social sciences, including the full repertoire of qualitative, mixed and quantitative approaches, to highlight particular challenges and insights gained in researching people and the sea. The eighteen papers in these sessions are divide over four themes:

- Clearing interdisciplinary hurdles
- Refreshing & reinvigorating methods
- Co-production & Co-design
- Experiences from the field: positionality, ethics, and reflection

We have collated papers focused on understanding the interactions between people and the sea through different methods and methodological approaches; the paper submissions represent novel approaches—the successes and failures—and demonstrate reflexivity in marine social science. Papers will be presented in traditional format with discussants.

Session 2: Refreshing & reinvigorating methods

Exploring Future Insights to UK Coastal Governance using the Delphi Method
Natasha Bradshaw, Thomas Appleby & Enda Hayes 

Using Photovoice to depict wellbeing-ecosystem services bundles for Marine Protected Areas governance
Ana Carolina Esteves Dias & Derek Armitage 

A multi-modal methodology for exploring cultural ecosystem services at the coast
Karen Henwood, Nick Pidgeon, Merryn Thomas & Erin Roberts

Researching People and the Sea: A psychological perspective
Jennifer Pickett & Joeri Hofmans

Speakers
avatar for Natasha Bradshaw

Natasha Bradshaw

UWE Bristol, UK
Collaborative governanceCoastal and marine policySocial science methodsStakeholder engagement and public participation
avatar for Jennifer Pickett

Jennifer Pickett

PhD Researcher, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Ocean loving psychologist with eclectic skills – commercial fishing, scientific research, guiding, counselling, public speaking, project management and writing. Researches work and organizational psychology, including: personality, maritime psychology and working in extreme env... Read More →
avatar for Ruth Brennan

Ruth Brennan

Marie Sklodowska Curie Individual Fellow, Trinity College Dublin
marine environmental governance, small scale fisheries governance, coastal communities ethnographies, art science collaborations, participatory research, visual methods, science policy interface,
KO

Kristen Ounanian

IFM Aalborg University



Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Ex- Keynote Panel title: Fisheries world-wide
Chaired by: Scholtens, J. & Bennet, N.

X-Keynote panel 1: Fisheries world-wide
Rashid Sumaila, University of  British Columbia
Moenieba Isaacs, University of the Western Cape
Rolf Willman, FAO
John Kurien, Azim Premji University

This panel revisits and furthers the reflections on the predicament of global fisheries presented over the course of 20 years by four keynote speakers. John Kurien, one of the first keynotes of the MARE conference in 2001, drew attention to the critical distinction between the ‘tropical majority’ and ‘temperate minority’ in the world’s fisheries and argued for ‘reverse collaboration’, questioning neocolonial practices in the global division of ‘who researches whom’. Rashid Sumaila (2011) reviewed the state of West Africa’s fisheries and contrasted this with their vast social, economic and ecological potential, highlighting the unhealthy distribution of fish wealth at both the local and national level. Moenieba Isaacs (2013) concentrated on events in South Africa, where the end of Apartheid (1994) created great expectations, also for the fisheries. However the small-scale sector, where employment is greatest, is currently facing elite capture, rights grabbers, overfishing, and decreased allocations. Rolf Willman (2013), reflecting on his high-stake personal engagements, discussed the developments and processes that had taken place over several decades leading up to the remarkable feature of FAO members adopting in 2014 the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable SSF. This extends to a larger plea for a human rights-based approach in small-scale fisheries and inclusion of the SSF guidelines into the blue economy agenda. This panel reflects on the ongoing relevance of these contributions and aims to discuss its implications for social science researchers in the maritime field and for the possibility for developing alternative visions of future fisheries.

Wednesday June 26, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

14:30

Coffee and Tea Break
Wednesday June 26, 2019 14:30 - 15:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Blue growth and ocean privatizations
Chaired by: Schlüter, A.

 From ‘tech’ to human - focused: The Role of Innovation in a Blue Economy
 Lana Kajlich, Michelle Voyer, Hugh Forehead, Faisal I Hai, Pascal Perez & Astrid Vachette
 
The world’s oceans are entering a new phase of large-scale industrialisation. Countries around the world are embracing the idea of pursuing new and innovative development opportunities in their marine jurisdictions. At the centre of this new ‘Blue’ Economy lies a focus on technical and technological innovations. These innovations are designed to tackle future complex challenges, while improving knowledge of the oceans and its uses and users, creating efficiencies along value chains, and enabling connections between people engaged in ocean use and management. Despite the emphasis on technical and technological ‘fixes’, innovation relies on human ingenuity, expertise and perseverance. Through a series of semi-structured interviews and drawing on the theoretical framework and methods of social network analysis, we explore the way ‘Blue’ innovation is currently being enacted, challenged and operationalised in the communities of a region in south east Australia. We find that, despite numerous attempts to foster and grow innovation, the most common and important stories of innovation involve an entirely human and organic process driven by a recognised need and an established problem. Given that collaboration is central to developing complex solutions, we uncover patterns within networks that facilitate learning, provide support and spur acceptance and uptake of innovation. We also show the extent these innovators rely on collaboration across sectors and tiers of governance and are aided or constrained by current policy. The implications for the emerging discourses around the Blue Economy are considered, in particular the limitations of technical and technological innovation as a panacea. We suggest that broader, human-centred notions of innovation may better reflect community aspirations and enable an inclusive and socially equitable Blue Economy.


Broadening the perspective on ocean privatisations
Achim Schlütera, Maarten Bavinck, Maria Hadijmichael, Stefan Partelowa, Alicia Said & Irmak Ertör
 
Privatisation of the ocean, in the sense of defining more exclusive property rights, is happening in increasingly diverse ways. With blue growth being the dominating ocean development discourse, it is likely that more privatisation will happen and new forms of exclusive property arrangements will arise. Different aspects, or items, of oceans can be privatised. The paper differentiates four of them: resources, space, governance control and knowledge. Most commonly discussed is the privatisation of singular resources such as fish, the central food resource of the ocean, also posing very obvious sustainability challenges. However, ocean space is also increasingly privatised. As indicated in the literature and political discourse on coastal and ocean ‘grabbing’, the privatisation of ocean space is attracting more scientific and societal interest. Certification is yet another form of ocean privatisation, when governance not emerging from state activity is done by private actors. With blue growth, interest in the ocean’s knowledge economy is rising, e.g., in the pharmaceutical industry. This leads to privatisation of knowledge about the ocean, such as patents. This paper elucidates what is different about privatising these four items in the ocean in comparison to on land. The distinct features of the ocean as a social-ecological system are manifold and are elucidated from various disciplinary, theoretical, and sustainability perspectives. The identification of the four types of ocean privatisation, and the unique characteristics in how they manifest in the ocean compared to on land, will help to understand the challenges and opportunities from those multiple privatisation processes under way.
 
 
Networking the Blue Economy in Seychelles: Pioneers, Resistance, and the Power of Influence
Marleen Schutter & Christina Hicks
 
The Blue Economy has widely gained traction as a key concept that seeks to stem biodiversity loss whilst stimulating economic development, integrating environmental and economic interests. However, although the Blue Economy builds on the Green Economy, academic critique can be slow to translate into changes in policy and practice, as a result familar critiques emerge in relation to the Blue Economy. Moreover, what the Blue Economy means to national and local policy makers and practioners is seldom explored, and specificity on how the triple bottom line of economic growth, environmental sustainability, and social equity can be attained is lacking. This paper explores these issues in one of the pioneering nations promoting the Blue Economy – the Republic of Seychelles – to establish a) how policy makers and practitioners in Seychelles interpret the Blue Economy b) what perspectives are influencing the Blue Economy; c) who stands to gain or lose out. Seychelles has a unique position in Africa, due to its remote location in the Indian Ocean, its political history, and its pioneering role in promoting the Blue Economy: it presents itself as a leader for Africa in this respect. Using a combination of interviews and Q-methodology, we identify three perspectives on the Blue economy in Seychelles. Policy makers and practitioners are either: Supportive in principle, critical in practice; Pragmatic and accepting; or Idealistic. We find that many of the perspectives on the Blue Economy present in international discourse are not present in Seychelles, and indeed elements are met with resistance. The three Seychelles' perspectives on the Blue Economy capture the interpretations of the policy makers and practitioners tasked with enacting change in Seychelles. Drawing on a social network analysis approach we find a select number of actors – both in- and outside Seychelles – are driving the perspectives, with different levels of influence.


Growth in the Docks: Ports, metabolic flows and socioenvironmental impacts
Borja Nogué Algueró

Virtually all internationally traded goods are shipped via maritime transportation. Major commercial ports are vital components of current economies, enabling and defining international production, distribution and consumption systems. Although port development is usually associated to positive economic effects such as increased growth and employment, the continuous expansion and intensification of port activities produce adverse outcomes such as air and water pollution, the destruction of marine and coastal environments, and health risks, among others. Most literature on ports treat such negative impacts as external costs rectifiable through regulation, innovation, technological upgrading, and increased efficiency. Taking the Port of Barcelona as a case study, this paper argues that the socioenvironmental impacts of ports are an inherent part of the shipping industry’s growth-driven economic model and it examines the unsustainable aspects of increased port activity and development. Finally, it introduces Degrowth as a radical socioecological alternative to ocean-based growth paradigms and discusses its prospective ‘blue’ articulation in the context of ports and maritime transportation.
 
 


Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Blue Justice for small-scale fisheries in the context of fishing opportunities and markets: A lens for SDG14b. (2)
Chaired by: Said, A. & Pascual-Fernandez, J.

Blue Justice for small-scale fisheries in the context of fishing opportunities and markets: A lens for SDG14b
Alicia Said & Jose Pascual-Fernández
Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer & Universidad de La Laguna


The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has raised the profile of small-scale fisheries through SDG14b, a target that calls for the provision of ‘access of small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets’. Considered as /a historic moment for small-scale fisheries, their recognition in the SDGs is an important milestone that sets an important focus on how such target ought to be achieved. Reaching this milestone requires overhauls in governance structures and management systems that have traditionally favoured other segments of the fishing fleets, mainly industrial and large-scale fisheries supposedly more “efficient”. This is particularly relevant in the era of “Blue Growth” that in many of its formulations exclude fisheries, and particularly small-scale fisheries (SSF), privileging new sectors, potentially increasing the challenges for SSF. Hence, achieving access to fishing opportunities and markets, a.k.a. SDG14b, would require adjustments in resource governance and fisheries management systems in all sectors, and development programs that embed concepts like human rights, social justice and equity as key elements of what we refer to as Blue Justice. In this session, we seek to provide case studies from around the world to showcase the governance challenges and opportunities concerning the planned or accomplished implementation of SDG14b, along with lessons about the importance of focusing strongly on the issues and concerns related to SSF as we strive to achieve the overall SDGs. The session invites experts from different regions to bring together a global discussion on governance transformations in the broader picture to decipher challenges and inform new policies that bring about blue justice in ocean and resource governance.

A Sisyphean Task? The Danish Experience with Taming the ITQ System 2007-2018 
Troels J. Hegland, Kristen Ounanian, Mathilde Højrup Autzen & Jesper Raakjær

With a core objective of reducing overall capacity, starting in 2007 Denmark implemented a particular variation of ITQs in its demersal fisheries: the ‘vessel quota-share’ system. This paper provides a retrospective on the intentions of key provisions in the Danish market-based fisheries management system since its implementation in 2007 and discusses central themes of concern. Experiences (e.g. from Iceland and Alaska) have shown that structural adjustments following the transition to a market-based system can be particularly problematic for smaller vessels and associated communities. Recognizing these experiences with ITQs and aiming to get the best from the system while avoiding its worst side effects, the Danish vessel quota-share system included a number of provisions to curtail the consolidating effects of market-based management. These included a cap on concentration, a requirement that the fishing quota-shares follow the vessel, an ‘active fisherman’ requirement, and—last but not least—a particular scheme allocating extra shares for smaller vessels conducting near-shore fisheries. However, in recent years, evidence has mounted suggesting that the system has failed in taming the market; either because of the inherent dynamics of the system, due to insufficient curtailing provisions, or due to mismanagement of existing provisions (or these in combination). As a result, calls of concern from the public have emerged questioning the equity and distribution of fishing access and resultant wealth. A central question—relevant to other nations grappling with ITQs—is whether or how a system/scheme can exist in parallel to a ‘pure’ market-based management system. More concretely, how can authorities provide effective provisions for small-scale fishers within a system intended to consolidate the fleet in the name of economic efficiency? To answer these questions, data on the development of the fleet structure have been scrutinized, and relevant policy-documents and legislation have been reviewed together with external policy evaluations.


Licenses, permits, entitlements..! Oh my! Perceptions of right to fish from the Wash cockle shell fishermen
Gurpreet Padda

The notion of right to fish and fishing rights is a confusing one. Some consider fishing rights as a concept emanating from EU fishing quotas that are based on the principle of relative stability. These are sometimes referred to as entitlements. In contrast, within a coastal setting, right to fish may be described as a point of reference to explain, perhaps, individual fishermen being entitled to fish. Being entitled to fish is a perception that could be associated to totemic or ancestral links to a fishing license or permit. This example, when examined in the context of the Wash cockle shellfisheries, explains the importance clarifying emblematic associations especially when applying fairness to social dimensions as described in the Eastern Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority (EIFCA) remit. In interviewing cockle shellfishermen in the Wash, F1 to F24, and referring to Government and EIFCA policy documents, this paper reveals the common misconceptions surrounding how licenses, permits and entitlements are understood by the locally based fishermen.


Transnational localism: Empowerment through Standard Setting in Small-scale Fisheries
Jerneja Penca

This article considers a range of tactics used by small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Europe and North America to improve market access, political influence, and legal recognition. These initiatives can be framed not only as implementation practices that occur as a result of international governance signals (such as SDG 14b or the ‘blue growth’ paradigm), but also as bottom-up standard-setting and empowerment tactics by SSF. The article uses the case study of SSFs to draw attention to the rise of ‘transnational localism’. This is defined as the reinforcement of local-specific approaches (reflecting local ecologies, values, and socio-economic specificities) within a transnational structure that provides support and recognition. It offers an alternative to the view that globalization necessitates global, uniform regulatory solutions. Transnational localism challenges the fascination with large certification schemes such as that administered by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) in fisheries governance. It implies a need to reconcile transnational challenges with heterogenous values and community approaches. To capture the simultaneous demand for the local and transnational within transnational law, this article proposes treating the described empowerment tactics within the scope of transnational standards. This requires a rethinking of standards away from technical, fixed rules that are uniformly applicable across the globe.



Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Coastal zone planning
Chaired by: Karrasch, L.

Groundwater salinisation in North West Germany: a creeping catastrophe?
Leena Karrasch & Bernd Siebenhüner

Groundwater salinisation is one of the major problems coastal societies are facing as one consequence of sea level rise and it can be exacerbated by increasing freshwater demands. Saltwater intrusion is a slow process that unfolds with a strong delay. It can be described as a “creeping catastrophe”, often overseen by and resulting in comparatively low awareness of society and higher management levels in coastal areas of North Western Germany. Current management of groundwater salinization focuses mainly on technical response measures, while socio-economic aspects and precautionary measures are viewed as subordinate. How can participation and governance arrangements increase the likelihood of acting on a creeping catastrophe such as groundwater salinisation in terms of perception, agenda-setting and problem-solving? A two-phase participatory process (expert interviews and workshop) including actors from institutions and authorities on local, regional and national level contributed to identifying societal challenges of groundwater salinisation. Therefore, complex interactions between water management, human activities and natural processes, and effective and efficient ways to manage and protect groundwater resources have been addressed. This paper focuses on the actors’ awareness of groundwater salinisation and how it is linked to different levels of decision-making. Demonstrated are the most vulnerable areas in East Frisia and Frisia as well as the main drivers leading to groundwater salinisation from the actors’ perspectives. Furthermore, technical, non-technical and institutional adaptation options will be presented. Conclusions will then be drawn how knowledge and awareness can contribute to change actor’s perceptions and perspectives on the often overlooked problem of groundwater salinisation.


Impact assessments in Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning
Patrick Berg Sørdahl

Coastal zone planning in Norway must since 2015 include impact assessments of proposed aquaculture areas. The assessments should ensure that possible environmental and societal effects of a proposed establishment are taken into consideration. However, no standard method of conducting impact assessments exists, so how the assessments are carried out varies between different coastal zone planning processes. For efficiency in the prioritizations and trade-offs made, the assessment methods should be harmonized both across proposed aquaculture areas and different coastal zone planning processes.

This paper analyses impact assessments in two intermunicipal coastal zone planning processes in Norway, involving 13 and 5 municipalities, and 109 and 34 aquaculture areas respectively. In the first process, 13 municipal planners did the assessments, while an independent consultant did the assessments in the other process. We analyse if the impact assessments consider impacts of aquaculture more or less objectively, for impacts onto nature’s diversity, cultural heritage and cultural environment, pollution, and human society.

Further, we analyse what interests and resources are considered most relevant, highest valued and most impacted if aquaculture should be allowed. Nature’s diversity, particularly wild salmon, landscape, fisheries and employment are the major ones. Lastly, we do a probit analysis of how prioritisation of the proposed aquaculture areas is done. The consultant was highly consistent in using sum consequence as the critierion. The municipal planners were overall less consistent, and extreme impacts mattered more. However, in the municipal councils’ decisions, more of the consultant’s recommendations were overturned than the planners’ recommendations on proposed aquaculture areas.


Understanding governance dynamics on the coast – identifying the barriers and bottlenecks to transformative change in Wales, UK 
Meghan Alexander, Emma McKinley, Rhoda Ballinger & Angus Garbutt

Arguably climate change and other associated ‘wicked problems’ demand transformative change in governance to better accommodate uncertainty and respond to the dynamic nature of these types of problems and diversity of stakeholders involved. However, change is often to slow to take effect. In Wales (UK), there is a strong policy aspiration towards ‘doing things differently’, which has been asserted with the recent enactment of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015. The Act requires all public bodies to demonstrate the Five Ways of Working, including i) prevention, ii) integration, iii) collaboration, iv) involvement of all stakeholders and v) long-term perspective, and further places a well-being duty of public bodies to contribute to the achievement of seven national well-being goals. The Act is intended to unite different actors under a shared framework and vision for the future to cut across traditional policy silos, however this transition is not without its difficulties. This is further exacerbated at the coast, where the intersection of land-sea governance is inherently complex and often fragmented.   
 
This presentation draws from research conducted as part of the interdisciplinary CoastWEB project, which examines the contribution that coasts make to human health and well-being. Focusing on Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management (FCERM) governance, this research performed stakeholder interviews with policymakers and practitioners operating at national to local scales, alongside in-depth policy and legal analysis, and a stakeholder workshop. We identify the important role that policy champions and ‘brokering’ actors play in facilitating effective governance, while also revealing remaining barriers to the Five Ways of Working. These insights informed a number of recommendations co-developed during a stakeholder workshop. Crucially, we highlight the importance of initial ‘quick wins’ to help energise change and progressively embed deeper transformations in governance. 




Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Ethical Governance of Fisheries: The Good, The Bad and The Wicked
Chaired by; Lam, M.E.

Ethical Governance of Fisheries: The Good, The Bad and The Wicked
Mimi E. Lam, Tony J. Pitcher, Sahir Advani & Tony Charles
University of Bergen, University of British Columbia, & Saint Mary’s University


Ethical fisheries are increasingly alluded to in the scientific literature and popular press, but have not been well defined or analysed critically. In response to recent high-profile cases of human rights violations in the Thai prawn trade and the New Zealand deep-sea fishery, corporate social responsibility is high on the agendas of many international seafood companies. But whether this is merely to gain popular consumer support and market share or if it reflects a true sea change in the operations of fisheries and seafood corporations is unclear. Incipient research (Lam, Song, and Pitcher, manuscript in preparation) is identifying what constitutes ethical fisheries by examining clear-cut cases of unethical fisheries and acknowledging that truly ethical fisheries are idealistic. To evaluate the ‘ethicalness’ of fisheries, we integrate the concept of ‘wickedness’ into the domains of ethics and good governance. Wicked problems and good governance principles are well-established in fisheries, but have yet to be quantified. The evaluation framework operationalizes the interactive and good governance frameworks using the ‘Rapfish’ rapid appraisal methodology originally developed to assess the sustainability of fisheries. The panel speakers will apply this novel ethical governance framework to assess the degree of wickedness of diverse fishery contexts and case studies against their degree of good governance. A planned outcome of this MARE panel will be a synthesis publication of global fishery case studies assessed using the ethical governance framework. Understanding and evaluating ethical fisheries governance are precursors to gaining the requisite insight needed to recommend viable policy interventions to achieve more ethical and sustainable fisheries.


Exploring Ethical Trade-Offs in Multicultural Seafood Value Chains
Sahir Advani, Tony Pitcher, Mimi Lam

Small-scale fisheries often involve multiple actors from diverse cultures with varying roles in seafood value chains. Due to inherent power imbalances among diverse actors and inequities in the transmission of information regarding prices and market demand, fishery value chains are often rife with unethical practices. Moreover, ethical trade-offs come to a fore when economic values from seafood compete with the food security and nutritional values that small-scale fisheries offer to local communities. This study highlights the wicked ethical problems and governance issues present in the multicultural seafood value chains of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Cross-cultural and locally-contextualised fishery-related values help us arrive at this understanding. Cultural groups in our study have complex spatial and temporal histories of settlement in the archipelago, and include: the indigenous Nicobaris; Karens from the Burmese mountains; Bengalis from the Gangetic floodplains; and Telugu fishers from the Andhra coast. Ethical trade-offs in the archipelago’s multicultural value chains are assessed with a novel ethical governance framework based on interactive and good governance theories operationalized within a modified Rapfish framework. Our results indicate that understanding the diversity of values and ethical trade-offs in multicultural fisheries may offer solutions for more effective and ethical fisheries governance.


A Novel Ethical Fisheries Governance Framework: The Good, the Bad, and the Wicked
Mimi E. Lam, Andrew Song, and Tony J. Pitcher

We introduce an incipient ethical fisheries governance framework that offers conceptual and analytical novelty: we identify what constitutes ethical fisheries and assess the ‘ethicalness’ of diverse fisheries. First, we examine cases of patently unethical fisheries (“the bad”) to identify criteria of ethicalness. Second, we imagine ideal cases of ethical fisheries (“the good”) to set governance goals. Third, we recognize that most fisheries are neither decisively unethical nor ethical, but rather, are plagued by ethical issues whose specification depends on diverse values, interests, and perspectives (“the wicked”). To operationalize the concept of ethical fisheries governance, we build on two well-established concepts in the fisheries social science literature: wicked problems and good governance. We define the ‘ethical space’ of fisheries by delineating two dimensions: the degree of ‘wickedness’ (related to governability) and the degree of good governance (related to ethicalness). Through our ethical fisheries governance framework, we aim to establish practical guidelines of how to use qualitative expert judgment to assess the degree of wickedness of different fishery case studies against their degree of good governance. We adapt the semi-quantitative, flexible, and scalable rapid appraisal ‘Rapfish’ methodology developed to evaluate fisheries, with uncertainty, against various norms or goals, such as sustainability, approach to ecosystem-based management, and compliance to the UN Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. By assessing the ethicalness and analyzing the ethical space of diverse fisheries, our ethical governance framework can structure deliberations among scientists, stakeholders, and decision-makers to characterize their ethical governability before attempting to define concrete policy interventions to achieve more ethical fisheries.


Speakers
avatar for Sahir Advani

Sahir Advani

PhD Candidate, University of British Columbia
avatar for Anthony Charles

Anthony Charles

Professor & Director, Community Conservation Research Network, Saint Mary's University
avatar for Mimi Lam

Mimi Lam

Marie Curie Fellow, University of Bergen
values, seafood ethics, governance, human dimensions of fisheries and aquaculture


Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Fish for food and nutrition security for the global poor. (2)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Onumah, E. & Scholtens, J.

Fish for food and nutrition security for the global poor
Joeri Scholtens
University of Amsterdam

This triple panel includes 12 papers that interrogate the significance of fish and fisheries for food and nutrition security. It builds on four ongoing research projects that aim to understand and improve the contribution of fish and fisheries to food and nutrition security. The Fish4Food project (focusing on urban poor in India and Ghana); the DriedFishMatters project (focusing on dried fish in South and South-East Asia); the SmallFishFood project (focusing on small indigenous fish in Africa) and the IKAN-F3 project (focusing on Indonesia). These projects, each with their distinct regional focus, aim to understand local-to-global fish value chains of typically underappreciated small, cheap and dried fish, and to develop greater appreciation for their vast contribution to alleviating ‘hidden hunger’ and for their provision of millions of livelihoods. This panel series creates space for sharing and discussing interim results by junior and senior researchers working in these projects.


Fish traders’ agency, skills and constraints in supplying affordable high quality nutrition in Ghana.
Ragnhild Overå 

Understanding Change and Continuity in Urban Fish Markets in India: Implications for Food Security.
Gopakumar Viswanathan, Amalendu Jyotishi & Holly M. Hapke

Comparing economies of dried fish in Asia: what the literature on six countries tells us 
Derek Johnson, Ben Belton, Jonah Olsen, & Eric Thrift

Integrating fisheries, food and nutrition – insights from people and policies in Timor Leste
Anna Farmery, Lana Kajlich & Michelle Voyer



Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Perceptions and values of marine resources and their uses in relation to conservation management areas, practices and target species. (2)
Chaired by: Breckwoldt, A., Fache, E. & Ferse, S.

Perceptions and values of marine resources and their uses in relation to conservation and management areas, practices and target species 
Annette Breckwoldt, Elodie Fache & Sebastian Ferse
ZMT & IRD - GRED 


This panel aims to highlight the manifold connections within which coastal and oceanic fisheries are embedded, largely but not exclusively focusing on the South Pacific. These connections can be of socio-cultural, socio-economic, ecological, policy or geopolitical nature and their analysis thus requires dialogues between various scientific disciplines. The panel is related to the Franco-German research project "A Sea of Connections: Contextualizing Fisheries in the South Pacific Region" (SOCPacific, https://socpacific.net/), and aims to present part of the team’s work in progress. This will involve interdisciplinary insights into various scales and dimensions of fisheries, fisheries management and marine governance in Fiji, Vanuatu and New Caledonia, in particular on:

- local perceptions and practices in the face of (1) global changes and drivers, and (2) regional and national management strategies and policies;
- the (sometimes conflicting) values attributed to offshore/inshore places and resources by different stakeholders and societal actors; or
- the tensions between fishing and conservation interests, in particular within marine protected and managed areas.

Despite this project’s focus on the South Pacific, the panel will also welcome insights into these thematic areas based on research conducted in other regions of the world, to generate fruitful comparative discussions and collaborations.


Status and importance of offshore fisheries within the Exclusive Economic Zones of Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia 
Xochitl Edua Elias Ilosvay, Annette Breckwoldt & Elodie Fache

Pacific Islands Countries and Territories (PICTs) depend on ocean resources such as fish, due to their small land territory and thus limited access to land livestock. Their fishery resources are divided into coastal and offshore. Coastal fisheries play a crucial role for the subsistence of the local communities, while oceanic fisheries are mainly undertaken by large industrial-scale fishing vessels in the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of the PICTs, essentially fishing on tuna. The tuna fishery in the West and Central Pacific Ocean is the largest worldwide; however, it has been mostly undertaken by distant water fishing nations. This way, PICTs mostly benefit economically from fishing access rights, and the profits generated by the fishing and by fish processing industries. Given the importance of the tuna fisheries for the PICTs, research embedding the economic value of tuna industry and involved fishing nations is necessary, in order to achieve sustainable use of the ocean resources within the PICTs’ EEZs, and ensure sustainable local economic growth and food security for their constantly growing human population. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the socio-economic importance of the offshore fisheries in three South Pacific PICTs: Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia. Catch size, catch value, vessel location and generated jobs data were collected from different sources. The most fished species were Skipjack, Yellowfin and Bigeye tuna, and Albacore, using longline and purse seine gear. Vanuatu and Fiji had 72 and 70 fishing vessels registered in the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission respectively in 2018, while New Caledonia had only 14. However, most vessel Masters were foreigners and only ca. 8 % were locals. Results show that offshore fishery in the region is still dominated by distant water fishing nations, yet in territories such as Fiji and New Caledonia, efforts in regionalising the industry are visible.


Winds of change: Food security and the modification of fishing practices and natural resource use in response to altering weather conditions on Takuu Atol
Anke Moesinger

Takuu Atoll is one of three Polynesian outliers in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. This approximately 90 hectare geographically remote atoll is part of the Solomon Islands archipelago and, as such, the local population is inextricably linked to the surrounding ocean for their primarily subsistence- based livelihood needs. For the people of Takuu, one the main environmental concerns at present is the unpredictability of trade winds. This causes distress among fishermen, as these disturbances can greatly affect food security and create dangerous for those out at sea. This paper examines the perceptions of alterations in weather and marine conditions including storms and currents. It further explores how fishermen have adapted to these changes through the implementation of different mariculture techniques and fishing methods. These methods include a multitude of Matau, or line fishing, various Kupena, or net fishing, gleaning as well as Tridacna gigas mariculture. I argue that local knowledge of changes in weather patterns, local ecological knowledge of fish behaviour and modifying natural resource use patterns are vitally important to the adaptive capacity of Takuu with regards to changing environmental conditions.



Children’s perceptions and values of the reef and its resources on Gau island, Fiji
Elodie Fache

Children are often marginalized in research on local views of marine spaces and species. Yet, they are directly concerned by – and sometimes involved in – the various uses of these spaces and species, issues related to their sustainability, and questions regarding the transmission of different registers of so-called ‘local knowledge’ (customary, religious, scientific, technical, etc.). Moreover, they are the next fishers and stakeholders of fisheries management endeavours. Some of them might even play an instrumental role in decision-making and policy-making processes on the matter in the future.
This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the heuristic interest of, and the practical tools for, involving children in inter- and transdisciplinary studies related to the ‘natural world’, while bringing new insights into local perceptions and societal values of local reef fisheries in the South Pacific. To do so, I will present the participatory fieldwork methods, involving drawing and ranking activities, that I applied in two primary schools on Gau island, in Fiji (Lomaiviti Province), in 2016 and 2018. These methods have allowed an exploratory analysis of how children, aged between 5 and 15, (1) represent the reef that limits both the customary fishing ground and the locally managed marine area of the district in which their village is included, and (2) articulate their connections with reef fishery resources. This work will be used to design a research protocol to be jointly applied in the three study areas of the SOCPacific project (Fiji, New Caledonia, Vanuatu) to facilitate the team’s comparison endeavours.



Speakers
avatar for Annette Breckwoldt

Annette Breckwoldt

post-doc, Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research


Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

The Human Dimensions of Aquaculture. (1)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Murray, G. & Fairbanks, L.

The Human Dimensions of Aquaculture
Grant Murray & Luke Fairbanks
Duke University Marine Lab


The nature of seafood production is rapidly changing. In many places, conventional commercial fishing activities have changed significantly, with profound effects on fishing communities. At the same time, aquaculture has grown rapidly. In this context, coastal communities are experiencing new types of impacts (both positive and negative) on their livelihoods and well-being, and communities and managers alike are faced with the need to better understand these impacts as they seek to make informed choices about the opportunities, tradeoffs, and areas of conflict associated with aquaculture as a way of producing seafood. However, while the ‘human dimensions’ of fishing have long attracted significant scholarly attention, much less attention has been given to aquaculture. Accordingly, this panel presents cases from around the world that illuminate aquaculture’s human dimensions including such things as governance, socio-cultural and economic impacts, gender, and fisheries interactions. The panel is anchored by presentations from members of the IMBeR Human Dimensions working group, but includes presentations from scholars outside of this group.


The link between rapid industry development and disease management in the Chilean salmon industry
Ingrid van Putten, Amara Steven, Shane Richards, Eriko Hoshino & Beth Fulton

Understanding the values associated with North Carolinian shellfish fisheries and aquaculture using the Q method.
Luke Fairbanks, Grant Murray, Lisa Campbell, Linda D’Anna, Joshua Stoll & Julia Bingham

Leverage points for innovative aquaculture-based pro-poor livelihood transformations in rural Bangladesh: An initial systems analysis
Samiya A. Selim & Marion Glaser

Can rampant aquaculture lead to identity grabbing?
Prateep Nayak

Big challenges for small-scale aquaculture in the new era of fisheries policy in Japan
Yinji Li & Mitsutaku Makino



Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Ex- Keynote Panel title: Fisheries in context
Chaired by: Kraan, M. & Steins, N.

X-Keynote panel 2: Fisheries in context
Edward Allison, University of Washington
Alpina Begossi, Universidade Estadual de Campinas  
Jeremy Phillipson, Newcastle University

One of the keynote speakers of the MARE conference was Daniel Pauly, in 2005. This renowned fisheries biologist reflected on how social scientists are relatively out of sight in applied marine research and argued that this was linked to the lack of generalizations social scientists make (Pauly, 2006). One of the responses to the keynote in the debate following in the MAST journal (Rob van Ginkel, 2006) pointed to the importance of sensitivity for local context. Considering that this in fact is one of the main generalizations social science makes, context matters, this panel will have exactly that perspective. What are the important lessons Begossi (2009), Phillipson and Allison (2017) learned from fisheries within the contexts they studied then? What was key at the time of their keynotes and what do those insights mean to us now? Begossi looks at South America (focusing on Brazil) and discuss dilemmas small-scale fishers face both in marine and riverine systems with regard to conservation, economic pressures, and sustainability directions. Phillipson (special invitee) focuses on NE Atlantic capture fisheries (focusing on Europe) and discuss outstanding challenges for the EU’s common fisheries policy such as managing market forces and shared space, whilst also looking at the future for family businesses and how to close the gap between fisheries and environmental management. Allison discusses how the transformation towards the neo-liberal blue economy model interacts with fishers and their communities and argues there are alternative, more equitable models to provide economic opportunities and achieve ocean sustainability.


Wednesday June 26, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Blue Justice for small-scale fisheries in the context of fishing opportunities and markets: A lens for SDG14b. (3)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment.

Chaired by: Said, A. & Pascual-Fernandez, J.

Blue Justice for small-scale fisheries in the context of fishing opportunities and markets: A lens for SDG14b
Alicia Said & Jose Pascual-Fernández
Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer & Universidad de La Laguna


The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has raised the profile of small-scale fisheries through SDG14b, a target that calls for the provision of ‘access of small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets’. Considered as /a historic moment for small-scale fisheries, their recognition in the SDGs is an important milestone that sets an important focus on how such target ought to be achieved. Reaching this milestone requires overhauls in governance structures and management systems that have traditionally favoured other segments of the fishing fleets, mainly industrial and large-scale fisheries supposedly more “efficient”. This is particularly relevant in the era of “Blue Growth” that in many of its formulations exclude fisheries, and particularly small-scale fisheries (SSF), privileging new sectors, potentially increasing the challenges for SSF. Hence, achieving access to fishing opportunities and markets, a.k.a. SDG14b, would require adjustments in resource governance and fisheries management systems in all sectors, and development programs that embed concepts like human rights, social justice and equity as key elements of what we refer to as Blue Justice. In this session, we seek to provide case studies from around the world to showcase the governance challenges and opportunities concerning the planned or accomplished implementation of SDG14b, along with lessons about the importance of focusing strongly on the issues and concerns related to SSF as we strive to achieve the overall SDGs. The session invites experts from different regions to bring together a global discussion on governance transformations in the broader picture to decipher challenges and inform new policies that bring about blue justice in ocean and resource governance.


Portuguese small-scale fisheries: issues of (in)justice in management
 Vanessa Iglesias Amorim & Cristina Pita

Aligning with dominant interests: the role played by geotechnologies in the place given to small-scale fisheries in marine spatial planning
Brice Trouillet

Boosting market innovation to support small-scale fisheries: A case study of Ko Chang, Trat Province, Thailand. 
Thamasak Yeemin, Wichin Suebpala, Makamas Sutthacheep Sittiporn Pengsakun, Wanlaya Klinthong & Bancha Lawang

Commitments to Equitable Seafood: the Untapped Potential of One-by-One Tuna Fisheries to the UN SDGs
Yaiza Dronkers Londoño

Tangible benefits for small-scale fisheries working for market differentiation: an Indonesian experience
Deirdre, E. Duggan, Wildan, A. Riza Baroqi, Putra Satria Timur, Stephani Mangunsong, Whayu Teguh Prawira, I Gede Sujana Eka Putra, I Gede Mika Winata, Yasmine Simbolon & Widi Artanti


Speakers
DD

Deirdre Duggan

Program Director, Masyarakat dan Perikanan Indonesia
VI

Vanessa Iglésias Amorim

PhD student, Centre for Research in Anthropology (CRIA)/University Institute of Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)
avatar for Brice Trouillet

Brice Trouillet

University of Nantes, France



Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Fish for food and nutrition security for the global poor. (3)
Chaired by: Hapke, H. & Scholtens, J.

Fish for food and nutrition security for the global poor
Joeri Scholtens
University of Amsterdam

This triple panel includes 12 papers that interrogate the significance of fish and fisheries for food and nutrition security. It builds on four ongoing research projects that aim to understand and improve the contribution of fish and fisheries to food and nutrition security. The Fish4Food project (focusing on urban poor in India and Ghana); the DriedFishMatters project (focusing on dried fish in South and South-East Asia); the SmallFishFood project (focusing on small indigenous fish in Africa) and the IKAN-F3 project (focusing on Indonesia). These projects, each with their distinct regional focus, aim to understand local-to-global fish value chains of typically underappreciated small, cheap and dried fish, and to develop greater appreciation for their vast contribution to alleviating ‘hidden hunger’ and for their provision of millions of livelihoods. This panel series creates space for sharing and discussing interim results by junior and senior researchers working in these projects.


Fish Value Chains and Governance for Food Security in Accra and Tamale, Ghana. 
Anderson Kwasi, Maarten Bavinck and Edward Onumah. 

Although small pelagic fish chains (sardinella, anchovy and mackerel) contribute strongly to the food security, health and development of poor urban consumers in developing countries, limited attention has been given to their role and development of their chains. Besides, a comprehensive analysis of governance is seldom undertaken in fish value chains in Ghana. This paper examines the governance structures and power relations in the post-harvest chains of small pelagics that may influence fish food security of poor consumers in the cities of Accra and Tamale. Using structured questionnaires, the paper collects primary data from 200 fish chain actors mainly processors, wholesalers and retailers, and interviews relevant external actors such as state and non-state institutions to generate information. The findings reveal spot market as the main governance typology dominating fish chains. However, relational governance has also emerged over time based on trust and family ties. Governance of small pelagic fish chains by institutions and associations is weak and is biased towards fish capture, and less attention given to fish as food along the post-harvest segment of the chains. Thus, governance of the post-harvest fish chain is rather weak or non-existent. This has serious food security implications for consumers. It is recommended that public and private actors should pay attention to fish chains by setting and monitoring rules and standards that are fair and easy to apply for chain actors to enhance overall chain functioning and improve fish quality. Chain actors should be encouraged to form associations to facilitate access to them.


Fish consumption behavior of low-income households in urban areas of Ghana
Edward Ebo Onumah, Benjamin Betey Campion, Maarten Bavinck 

This paper assess the fish consumption behavior of low-income households in Ghana using a three season survey data from 300 households residing in poor communities of Accra and Tamale. The study profiles the types of fish consumed and employs the multinomial logit and the Tobit models to analyse the determinants of household preferences for fish types (fresh, processed fish or both), and income allocation to fish purchase, respectively. The results reveal that small pelagic fish are popularly consumed compared to large pelagic. Share of household income allocation to fish consumption is estimated to be 27%. Region of residence, religion, fish price, education level and ease of accessibility are identified to influence the type of fish consumed. Findings further demonstrate that increase in fish price, marital status, nearness to local markets, region, season and income influence the share of household expenditure to fish consumption. The study recommends improvements in transportation and distribution systems to help bring fresh fish closer to consumers, whilst government should strengthen the pre-mix fuel subsidy policy to reduce fish prices and make fish affordable to low-income households. Development of value chains of small pelagic fish should be encouraged as they are preferred by poor households.


Casting the net wider: integrative approaches to value chain research in fisheries
Ben Belton, Derek Johnson, and the DFM team

A primary goal of the project ‘Dried Fish Matters: Mapping the Social Economy of Dried fish in South and Southeast Asia for Enhanced Wellbeing and Nutrition Security’ is to generate a transdisciplinary knowledge base on the social economy of dried fish across six Asian countries. This is the first large-scale effort of its kind on dried fish in Asia that seeks to link participants’ knowledge with that of governors and with academic research from disciplines as diverse as anthropology, biology, and nutrition. The project’s methodology has to accommodate this diversity within the project’s broader conceptual framing of economies as embedded in particular contexts and histories. To give structure to the research effort, the project critically engages with a stacked value chain methodology by drawing on insights from social wellbeing, political economy, and feminist theory, among others. Our presentation has two focuses. First, we explain how we have designed the project’s methodology to meet the challenge of conducting research on this scale with relatively limited means. Second, we discuss our efforts to integrate attention to process into the project, given its geographical and epistemological ambition.


Tale of Two Cities: Fish consumption patterns and characteristics among the low income households in coastal and inland city of South India
Amalendu Jyothisi and Joeri Scholtens

While much is known of fish production pattern and consumption at an aggregate level, there is little understanding of fish consumption behavior among the low income households in city regions. Given that fish is an important and cheap source of nutrition, this paper attempts to understand the pattern of fish consumption in two contrasting cities in South India namely Chennai (coastal city) and Bangalore (inland city). By analyzing various information collected at three different seasons from the same households, we infer about the low income household consumption behavior, purchasing characteristics including quality inferences, trust and relational aspects with the traders and pattern across various social and economic groups. We couple this analysis with the dominant fish trading characteristics in both the cities to evaluate how the coastal and inland cities characterize fish availability, accessibility, quality and stability that would have implications on the nutrition security for the low income households.


Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Fisheries and the Maritime Silk Road Initiative. Insights from Southeast Asia and West Africa
Chaired by: Hornidge, A.K. & Alff, H.

 Fisheries and the Maritime Silk Road Initiative. Insights from Southeast Asia and West Africa 
Anna-Katharina Hornidge & Henryk Alff 
Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) & University of Bremen 

Over the last four decades China evolved as a leading nation in global fisheries with the by far largest distant water fishing fleet operating in numerous EEZs and the high seas. Since the turn of the millennium, questions regarding the access to biological resources from the ocean as well as food security concerns have gained attention in Chinese ocean-related policy-making. Chinese fishing companies at the same time have heavily invested into fleets and fish processing plants, including in Southeast Asia and West Africa. Announced in fall 2013 by China’s president Xi Jinping as a vision for future connectivity and mutually beneficial development between China and partners in Asia, Africa and Europe, the Maritime Silk Road Initiative (MSRI) has been controversially discussed as a vehicle for global infrastructural improvement and cooperation and as an instrument for China’s increasing expansion into the oceanic sphere alike. While the MSRI appears prominently in geopolitical debates around the construction of ports and the transport of hydrocarbons, local-level negotiations and materialisations of the MSRI through Chinese claims on marine biological resources call for a closer, empirically-based study of the fisheries sector as vehicle of MSRI expansion. The here proposed panel thus asks, how China’s large-scale drive towards global leadership in face of the MSRI pans out in particularly conflictive marine biological resources use and trade in the South China Sea as well as the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The selected papers will engage with questions of how the MSRI has to be spatially and politically conceptualized and how it might be reshaped/-thought in the future, taking Chinese fisheries and related infrastructures in these geographically diverse waters as empirically defining. We thus understand the socio-spatial materialisation of Chinese fisheries not through the lens of territorial domination, but as a process of negotiation between differently positioned (and mobile) agents and thus as socially embedded in and spatially constructed through mutual interrelations/-actions.


Customary institutions and Access to Marine Resources: Examining Entanglement and Legitimacy
Jacqueline Lau, Joshua E Cinner, Michael Fabinyi, Georgina G Gurney & Christina C Hicks

Across much of the Pacific, marine resource use and management continues to be shaped by customary institutions like marine tenure and taboo areas. However, alongside the socio-economic shifts accompanying capitalism and modernity, forms and practices of customary systems are changing. In this context, we aim to contribute to the theoretical treatment of access to marine resources by drawing on ideas from political ecology (legitimacy) and anthropology (entanglement). We hypothesize that where customary and modern forms of resource management co-exist, changes in customary institutions will also change people's ability to and means of benefiting from resources. We ask a) what are the constellations of social, economic, and institutional mechanisms that enable or hinder access to a range of coral reef resources; and b) how are these constellations shifting as different elements of customary institutions gain or lose legitimacy in the process of entanglement with modernity? Through a qualitative mixed-methods case study in a coastal atoll community in Papua New Guinea, we identify key access mechanisms across the several marine value chains. Our study finds the legitimacy of customary systems - and thus their power in shaping access - has eroded unevenly for some resources, and some people within the community (e.g. younger men), and less for others (e.g. women), and that access to different resources are shaped by specific mechanisms, which vary along the value chain. Our findings suggest that attention to entanglement and legitimacy can help capture the dynamic and relational aspects of power that shape how people navigate access to resources in a changing world. We contend that viewing power as relational illuminates how customary institutions lose or gain legitimacy as they become entangled with modernity.


China's Maritime Policy and "The Belt and Road"
Jiawei Wang

Ancient China was a nation focused on land, the emperor of ancient China made land development to the top priority of nation development and protect the nation security. In the Yongle reign of Ming dynasty, a huge fleet of ships set sail from Nanjing. The voyage was led by Zheng He. Zheng He opend up trade routs in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. Zheng let the world know about China through peaceful diplomacy. In the recent year, as countries around the world have turned their eyes to the ocean, China has begun to pay attention to the development of the ocean, China has put forward the “Belt and Road” to maintain an open world economic system, and achieve diversified, independent, balanced, and sustainable development, and advance regional cooperation, strengthen communications between civilizations, and safeguard world peace and stability. This paper will review the maritime policy proposed by Chinese government and the maritime diplomacy carried out in recent years, and introduce China’s maritime policy and the“Belt and Road”. It provides ideas for countries to cooperate with China in the Marine flied, jointly protect the earth, develop Marine economy and safeguard Marine security.








Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Gender in Fisheries in the times of Sustainable Development Goals.
Chaired by: Nauen, C.E. & Williams, S.

Feminization of poverty in artisanal fishing in West Africa
Aliou Sall

The trajectory of women involved in small-scale fisheries in West Africa, generally speaking, is marked by two major periods in the recent past: an earlier period when they enjoyed a high status, e.g. much higher than their peers in agriculture, and a more recent one that began about a decade ago, characterised by a gradual loss of social status and economic capacity.
During the first period, women family entrepreneurs had almost exclusive control over certain segments of the value chain even as small-scale fisheries started tapping into international markets. Their strength was the marketing of high value fresh fish and the artisanal processing sub sectors. Thanks to the revenues from these two activities and alternative savings schemes, women succeeded in establishing themselves in pivotal roles to meet the financing needs of fishermen, upstream and downstream the harvesting activities.
In the last about fifteen years, the combined effects of increasing globalization of markets with attendant technological change, poor governance of fisheries and climate change led to declining social and economic conditions in small-scale fisheries overall. Women are selectively affected by rising costs, and lack of access to technology, credit and thus market.
Examples will be discussed from Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and The Gambia presented through three lenses: (1) the basis and articulation of their former high social status, (2) indicators of changing conditions leading to selective impoverishment of women that underpin the erosion of their status, and (3) discuss a number of women-specific initiatives to cope with or adapt to this new context. The previous meta-analysis of gender issues thus warrants an update in the light of latest developments.


The fisherwoman's voice: The viewpoints and potential role of women in the conservation of Senegal's artisanal fisheries
Maxime Lambert

As Senegal's artisanal fisheries continue to bear the brunt of the numerous pressures of aquatic environmental degradation, strategies to protect and conserve the overall industry's resources turn towards sector policy reform and attempts to improve its enforcement. These pressures are engendered largely by industrial fishing vessels which are to a significant degree characterised by IUU fishing operations compounded by increasing signs of climate change and further fuelled by continued high international demand for demersal and pelagic species, which are also the maintay of local and regional consumers. The role of women and their conceptions of the issues at hand tend to attract insufficient attention despite well-intended statements to the contrary. By interviewing 11 women working in the Senegalese small-scale fishing post-harvest sector in Hann, near the capital Dakar, this study aims to illustrate their perceptions and understanding about their immediate working environment and the wider national policy context. Knowledge of this broader context seems to be limited among the younger operators and much better developed among older women. Despite individually difficult situations taking shape through the interviews, motivation to succeed in defending and improving their livelihood is strong. This snapshot picture can be still useful for informing any plans by government or other development actors intent on supporting women in the post-harvest sector in Hann. Such plans should take the women's own ambitions and expectations as the starting point. Education and life experience appear as key factors for the women's ability to understand their situation within “the bigger picture” and open alternatives to their livelihoods mostly on the borderline to poverty. A larger sample of such more fine-grained approaches can be developed into expanding the earlier meta-analysis of gender roles in small-scale fisheries.



Exploring Gender Mainstreaming for Sustainable Fisheries in Nigeria
Stella Williams

Fisheries and aquaculture as engines of growth employ men, women and youths by providing for their social and economic livelihoods. Aquaculture dates back to 1948 when the first sets of fish ponds, though experimental, were constructed in Onikan, Lagos.
This study will detail the administrative, research and management structures within which women work in fisheries. It will highlight the development of institutions in relation to gender roles and explore the contributions of men, women and youths in the achievements of the UN SDGs with particular attention to SDGs 1, 2, 5 and 14. It will also explore how gender mainstreaming can help prevent poverty, reduce hunger, improve educational outcomes and advance gender perspectives for policy development, peace and justice in Nigeria. The overall impact of these on sustainability of the sub-sectors will also be analysed. This will show that the development of the educational, economic and institutional aspects of women's social roles experienced in the last decade or more justifies expanding the previous meta-analysis.



Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Let's draw on our practices. (Interactive brainstorming session)
Chaired by: Neilsson, A.L. & Sao Marcos, R.

Let's Draw on Our Practices: Interactive brainstorming session
Alison Laurie Neilson and Rita São Marcos
University of Coimbra


This panel will engage with images that underlie fisheries and the way these are manifest within policy, institutional structures, day-to-day activities of advisory councils, fisheries associations and other relevant actors. It will also reflect on how these are created and enacted by the limited positivistic way of knowing fisheries and oceans. The presentations will serve as catalysts for a brainstorming activity in which we seek to create alternative visual images that are able to more effectively communicate complex, political, ambiguous and difficult ideas, which are often excluded from policy and public discourse.


Poster presentation:
WITH OUR COLLECTIVE IMAGINATIONS – AN INVITATION TO DRAW TOGETHER COMPLEX SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE
Alison Laurie Neilson, Rita São Marcos 

Literally and figuratively, we draw from the fields of education, sociology, political ecology, anthropology, and other critical social sciences to invite participants at MARE People & the Sea X: learning from the past, imagining the future, to collaborate with us to learn how to create more powerful images of multiparadigmatic ways to know the ocean, fish and fisheries. Part of this poster will juxtapose strong visual arguments used within positivistic natural sciences to promote the importance of this type of knowledge with the fewer and generally weaker attempts to communicate social science knowledge related to fisheries and oceans. The remaining portion of the poster will present examples of visual communications that have been developed outside of fisheries research, but which offer useful starting points for developing specific images which could help frame, know and dream coasts, oceans and the social-ecosystems which our collective research could better serve. It uncovers the ways that the fields of science communication and apolitical environmental and outdoor education create powerful lessons which continuously empower already too limited ways of knowing thereby also giving more power to increasingly effective exclusion of diverse and critical social sciences as well as fisher’s knowledges. This poster will be used to facilitate discussion and creative engagement with the diverse research practices, paradigms and fisheries communities present within the panel speakers and audience.


FRAMING, KNOWING AND DREAMING FISHING: RESEARCHERS TELLING STORIES WITH AZOREANS 
Alison Laurie Neilson

Research with Azorean fishing communities dealing with declining fish populations, fleet reductions, and reduced fish quota uncovers the economic and political realities of small-scale fisheries and the stratification of wet worldviews which threatens the human-wild fish relationship. Small-scale and artisanal fishing is understood via myths and stereotypes which limit what we learn about ocean systems, how we do research and the way we govern fisheries. Scientists give advice for the survival of fish species, but assumptions about history and human behaviour limit the approach to management. Taken for granted ideas reinforce the “normal” idea of artisanal fishers as poor and helpless, and that the future of the oceans and wild fish is hopeless. The prevailing political direction for our shared oceans is toward economic growth of industrial activities. Wild fish and small-scale fishing are not priorities. Local interests are pushed aside by the pursuit of profit while fish stocks continue to disappear. This presentation will highlight a project which aims to tell stories which frame fishers in a better light, as important participants and leaders for creating and maintaining sustainable and just relationships with all ocean life. The photo stories and narratives from this project ask us to look to the sea through new eyes, hear with new ears, and awaken to the possibility of knowing the sea in unfamiliar ways. It provides an opportunity to reflect on our own intellectual, physical, emotional and spiritual understandings by exploring the perspectives of people who have been born and raised in the sea.


THE FORCE OF THE BETTER ARGUMENT? AZOREAN SMALL-SCALE FISHERS’ AGENCY AND PARTICIPATION IN ADVISORY COUNCILS
Rita São Marcos

Participatory governance is an increasing norm in European Fisheries, however policy making strategies have been driven by bio-economic models that ascribe top priority to the biological and economic research domains. Governance structures fall short on moving from inclusive narratives and discourses to effective and genuinely participatory practices and a continuing tension exists, and has remained unchanged for the last four decades, between participatory democracy and expert authority. The UN has stressed the role of small-scale fisheries as catalysts for sustainable development and reported the need for a shift in the way decision making bodies operate through a clear legislative framework for full participation of community organizations as stewards in marine resource management. This paper aims to reflect on the role fishing communities play in fisheries policy making. Building from a sociological perspective and an ethnographic approach to the agency and political participation of Azorean small-scale fisher’s associations in advisory councils (at the regional and European level) it will explore the existing tensions between the power of science and scientific advice and the influence of fishers’ knowledges and perspectives. (1) How do regional and EU fisheries systems, and specifically stakeholder advisory councils, provide arenas for a transformative and emancipatory potential of fishers’ agency towards change? (2) How are fishers, civil society actors, policy makers/managers and scientists involved in multi-actors contexts and processes of decision making? (3) What perspectives and representations do they have on fishing issues and the way they should be managed? Which underlying understandings, images and assumptions have been directing the policy and research agenda?


Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and developing best practice
Bianca Haas, Marcus Haward, Jeffrey McGee & Aysha Fleming

Regional Fisheries Management Organizations are key bodies responsible for managing fisheries on the high seas and in areas under national jurisdiction and are essential to achieve  Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14, ‘Life below water’  SDG Goal 14 addresses the sustainable use and conservation of the oceans and marine resources and is highly linked to other goals, such as poverty reduction (SDG 1) or zero hunger (SDG 2). While millions of people rely on oceans and marine resources for food, income, and well-being, concerns over overfishing (fishing above sustainable levels) have, however, led to criticism of the performance of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations. Performance Reviews provide one possibility to assess and improve the functioning of the organizations, discuss and assess current management approaches, and increase awareness of important issues such as climate change. These assessments emphasize best practices among fisheries management organizations, foster cooperation among them, and have considerable potential to positively influence management processes.  Performance assessments can be an important tool to improve not only the performance of the fisheries sector but can also play a relevant role in enhancing ocean governance in terms of the aspirations established by SDG14.

Speakers
avatar for Alison Neilson

Alison Neilson

Researcher, Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra
Researcher and educator who works with fishing communities in the Azores Islands, PortugalI'm a Portuguese /Canadian researcher who works on environmental justice issues in fishing communities of the Azores Islands, Portugal. I conduct narrative and arts-informed research on the way... Read More →


Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Marine Social Sciences: Working towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.
Chaired by: McKinley, E., Accott, T. & Kraan, M.

Marine Social Sciences: Working towards an interdisciplinary research agenda
Emma McKinley, Tim Acott and Marloes Kraan
Marine Social Science Network, Greenwich Maritime Centre and MARE


Increasingly, and on an international scale, we are seeing calls for greater consideration of the social and cultural aspects of managing our global marine and coastal resources. Indeed, in recent times the value of marine social science research, data, evidence and expertise has undergone something of an upward trajectory. As a community, we are seeing continual growth, supported by a range of international interdisciplinary networks.
With this growth comes the potential to develop a collaborative international research agenda, setting out global priorities to further examine the intricacies of societal relationships with our seas and coasts. A collaboration between the Marine Social Science Network, GMC and MARE; this workshop aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from across the marine social science disciplines, representing a range of geographical regions and perspectives, and will begin to build a future vision for marine social sciences across the globe.
The workshop will address the following key topics and themes:
  1. What does the global marine social science network look like?
  2. What are the key messages from the marine social science community, and how can these be used to raise the profile and increase understanding of the value of marine social science data and information as evidence for marine and coastal decision-making and management? What are the examples of success that can be used to support this?
  3. How can marine social sciences and the associated research agenda to deliver Sustainable Development Goal 14 (and other relevant SDGs)?
  4. What are the challenges to delivering this research agenda?




Speakers
avatar for Marloes Kraan

Marloes Kraan

Researcher, Wageningen University & Research
MAREApplied marine social scienceFisheries behaviour, food security, cultural heritageInterdisciplinarity


Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Researching people and the sea: methodologies and traditions. (3)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Ounanian, K., Phillipson, J., Gustavsson, M. & White, C.

Researching people and the sea: methodologies and traditions
Kristen Ounanian, Madeleine Gustavsson, Jeremy Phillipson & Carole White
Aalborg University, University of Exeter, Newcastle University, University of East Anglia

Through a panel covering four sessions of papers, we aim to take stock of the social science methodologies, roles and traditions for researching people and the sea. Calls for social science research in marine and fisheries contexts have never been more prominent, with social sciences seen as part of the solution for understanding and addressing complex and intractable challenges, whilst also bringing a strategic orientation to natural science perspectives. Social scientists have therefore increasingly shed light onto the often ill-defined social dimensions of the marine environment and fisheries, in a field that has traditionally been heavily framed by the environmental and natural sciences. To date there has been little explicit consideration focused on critically and reflexively exploring the experiences of deploying, innovating or adapting social science methods and approaches within marine and fisheries contexts, or in terms of their combination with other approaches within interdisciplinary research. Therefore, this multi-session panel aims to bring together a variety of epistemological and methodological perspectives from across the (non-economic) social sciences, including the full repertoire of qualitative, mixed and quantitative approaches, to highlight particular challenges and insights gained in researching people and the sea. The eighteen papers in these sessions are divide over four themes:

- Clearing interdisciplinary hurdles
- Refreshing & reinvigorating methods
- Co-production & Co-design
- Experiences from the field: positionality, ethics, and reflection

We have collated papers focused on understanding the interactions between people and the sea through different methods and methodological approaches; the paper submissions represent novel approaches—the successes and failures—and demonstrate reflexivity in marine social science. Papers will be presented in traditional format with discussants.

Session 3: Co-production & Co-design


Strengthening Fisheries Governability through Human Behaviour Research in Atlantic Canada
Evan J. Andrews, Jeremy Pittman, and Derek Armitage

Attending to the rhythms of the sea, place and (gendered) fishing cultures in interviewing fishers and fishing families
Madeleine Gustavsson
 
Naked methodology: Baring it all for a realistic account of marine social science research
Kristen Ounanian
 



Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

The Human Dimensions of Aquaculture. (2)
Chaired by: Murray, G. & Fairbanks, L

This is an interactive workshop following the earlier session "The Human Dimensions of Aquaculture (1)"

The Human Dimensions of Aquaculture (2)
Grant Murray & Luke Fairbanks
Duke University Marine Lab


The nature of seafood production is rapidly changing. In many places, conventional commercial fishing activities have changed significantly, with profound effects on fishing communities. At the same time, aquaculture has grown rapidly. In this context, coastal communities are experiencing new types of impacts (both positive and negative) on their livelihoods and well-being, and communities and managers alike are faced with the need to better understand these impacts as they seek to make informed choices about the opportunities, tradeoffs, and areas of conflict associated with aquaculture as a way of producing seafood. However, while the ‘human dimensions’ of fishing have long attracted significant scholarly attention, much less attention has been given to aquaculture. Accordingly, this panel presents cases from around the world that illuminate aquaculture’s human dimensions including such things as governance, socio-cultural and economic impacts, gender, and fisheries interactions. The panel is anchored by presentations from members of the IMBeR Human Dimensions working group, but includes presentations from scholars outside of this group.







Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

16:45

Theorizing crime, conflict and contestation at sea
Chaired by: Nootenboom, G.

Critical and constructive engagements: Political ecologies of the ocean and coastal environment
Nathan J. Bennett

Themes of political ecology, such as power and politics, narratives and knowledge, scale and history, environmental justice and equity, are useful for helping us to understand ocean governance and coastal management. This is particularly true as the marine environment is increasingly busy and degraded, which is leading to contestation and conflict over both marine resources and areas of the ocean. This review paper will examine research on the aforementioned themes of political ecology in the ocean and coastal environment and reflect on how the insights gained might be applied to governance and management. Review results highlight how political ecology provides important insights into: the influence of power in ocean management and governance processes; the manner in which narratives, knowledge, and scale are used to legitimize and shape policies and management efforts; the effects of historical trajectories on present circumstances, options, and practices; and the nature of inequities and environmental injustices that can occur in the marine environment. In conclusion, this paper will discuss how political ecologists can move from critical to constructive engagements, through examining several projects where political ecologists have engaged in collaborative research projects with communities and stakeholders to co-produce knowledge and re-imagine future scenarios for ocean and coastal governance.


Setting a scene of worldwide fisheries conflicts: common ‘who’s, ‘why’s and ‘where’s?
Lol Iana Dahlet

In the context of an ever-globalized world, the oceans are prey to quickly evolving interests from increasingly various stakeholders that compete for space and marine resources. Physical and ecological scarcity likely go hand in hand with rising tensions, often embodied in the form of tenure issues. Conflicts over worldwide fisheries are key to assess if we want to improve our understanding on how to help to secure and enhance fisheries sustainability from social, economic and ecological perspectives. Capture fisheries directly employ 120 million people, and land around 90 million tons annually. For the many who rely on their catch for subsistence, there is little margin for coping with change. The stakes are high, and when complex challenges arise, mutually agreeable solutions must be found to ensure the best outcome for all stakeholders.
Depicting and finding common patterns in the ‘who’s, ‘why’s and ‘where’s of 64 on-going worldwide fisheries conflicts is the aim of this paper. Mapping fisheries conflicts features will also contribute to introduce the debate of (non-)existing (inter)national resolution mechanisms, with a focus on the role of the existing sea tenure systems. This study ensues from a global effort to improve the knowledge on the state of tenure and user rights in fisheries, evidenced by the recompilation of 74 case studies from 45 countries issuing from the UserRights 2018 Conference (September 2018, Yeosu, South Korea), organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations jointly with the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the Republic of Korea.


Do people deal with overfed oceans? A journey through coastal eutrophication-related conflicts and social movements
Alix Levain, Carole Barthélémy, Magalie Bourblanc, Jean-Marc Douguet, Agathe Euzen & Yves Souchon

Despite harmful local consequences on coastal communities and biodiversity, eutrophication of marine systems resulting from high levels of nutrients loading from human origin, only recently gained public visibility. Representing a major land-based pollution, it is now considered as the most reliable and striking symptom of hardly reversible disruption of biogeochemical nutrients cycles at a global scale, due to massive phosphate ore extraction and industrial synthesis of reactive nitrogen.
In most of the cases, the experience of local people was insufficient to trigger stringent public policies, the lack of effectivity of public action being often presented as a result of local antagonisms and persistent scientific uncertainties. This is one of the major outcomes of our recent comprehensive analysis of the fight against, and adaptation to, marine eutrophication across the globe: although social mobilizations against coastal eutrophication tend to stick to emblematic sites, socioenvironmental conflicts directly related to eutrophication symptoms, tend to spread in very diverse hydro-social configurations.
This contribution will i) provide an extensive overview of formerly dispersed works in sustainability, social and political sciences, analyzing multi-scale dynamics of ocean overfertilization trajectory as public problem, and ii) propose a typology of enduring conflicts related to land-based nutrient pollution, building on the concept of hydro-social configuration. It will also emphasize, thanks to case studies in Western Europe and Eastern China, how oceanic ontological features accentuate epistemic tensions when facing global environmental change.






Speakers
avatar for Nathan Bennett

Nathan Bennett

Research Associate, University of British Columbia


Wednesday June 26, 2019 16:45 - 18:15
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam
 
Thursday, June 27
 

09:00

Keynote: Prof. Dr. D. Parthasarathy
Anthropo-Sea: Reassessing Ocean Grab and Coastal Squeeze in the context of Climate Change – Perspectives from Asia
D. Parthasarathy

“Ocean grab” and “Coastal squeeze” with varied supplementations and innovations have become popular concepts to describe processes of marginalization and degradation of socio-ecological systems and the increasing pressures on coastal land and marine resources. Deploying “Asia as method” approach as a programmatic formulation, this paper attempts to re-assess and take stock of the current status of the usage and deploy ment of these concepts, as a preliminary to outlining a framework to study the historically unprecedented scale of shifts and transformations that are affecting our coasts and oceans. In elaborating the meaning and politics of this approach, the paper will elaborate on the importance of studying (in a comparative perspective) microecologies and microregions, assess their common denominators, and how their identity, mutation, shifting frontiers, interactions, and transformation are key to understanding the pressures that oceans and coasts are coming under in Asia – a region that has a long history of maritime trade and travel. Innovating the idea of Anthropo- Sea as a supplement to Anthropocene, the talk is based on collaborative empirical studies of coastal vulnerability and the politics of contestation and conflict in India’s coasts, as well as an extensive review of Asian literature on coastal conflicts and emerging risks.

Thursday June 27, 2019 09:00 - 10:00
REC A0.01 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:00

Coffe and Tea Break
Thursday June 27, 2019 10:00 - 10:30
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Bridging fragmented marine jurisdictions
Chaired by: Clancy, P.

Governance and Civil Society in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Peter Clancy

Canada’s Gulf of St. Lawrence is, by geo-political standards, a highly fragmented jurisdictional system. This can result in key policy decisions being channelled through processes that are both functionally and spatially restricted. In this sense, fragmentation can dampen the spread of public awareness and political engagement. Yet during the past thirty years, a series of environmental political issues has emerged, ranging from seal hunting, groundfish decline and oil exploration to pulp mill effluent discharge and north Atlantic right whale mortality. Each case has stimulated networks of environmental actors and increased awareness by the Gulf regional public.
What are the prospects for development of a Gulf civil society as a counter-force on such matters? There would seem to be several pre-conditions here. One is institutional, in the sense of decision-making structures that can aggregate coastal publics. Another is representational and refers to patterns of associational action that can be linked into networks. A third involves issue agendas, through which awareness is built and preferences expressed. Reviewing some key effects of Gulf environmental campaigning, this paper considers the prospects for an emergent Gulf civil society.


Proposal of a Cross-border management initiative between Spain and Portugal
Márcia Marques, Cristina Cervera-Núñez, Adriano Quintela, Lisa Sousa, Ana Silva, Fátima L. Alves, María Gómez-Ballesteros, Mónica Campillos-Llanos, Carla Murciano & Ana  Lloret 


Managing resources through national borders is always a challenge, as it is planning activities. Maritime Spatial Planning and conservation face the same challenge of mismatch between ecological and jurisdictional borders which is the reason why the European Union encourages Member States to collaborate with neighbouring countries in these matters.
Moreover, the interaction between Maritime Spatial Planning and conservation is a reciprocal process and when well developed could become a “win-win” situation.
This paper conceptualizes the creation and management of a cross-border MPA including the Spanish conservation area of Galicia Bank and the proposed area of Vigo and Vasco da Gama seamounts.
This co-management initiative should be based in the governance and administrative structures of both countries and designed in such a way that it is possible to apply effective recommendations or regulations either directly or via parallel management plans in either country.
It is also essential to evaluate the political relations between both countries in order to optimize the cooperation process, addressing proper responsibilities for the creation and management of the cross-border MPA.
For that, the creation of a joint steering committee has been identified as a keystone for a cooperative process in order to promote real action and commitment from both countries. This means further research into economic values of marine biodiversity and ecosystem services to ensure best practice planning and management of marine resources. The knowledge, development and protection of the marine habitats, especially the most valuable ecosystems, are basic strategic directions of action in the achievement of these goals.


Guidelines for including area-based fisheries management measures in Aichi Target 11 accounting
Amber Himes-Cornell


Fisheries is the only human activity that depends on both clean water and healthy ecosystems. Protection of biodiversity is a key element in this respect and marine protected areas are high on the international conservation agenda. Area-based fishery management measures, including permanent or temporary fishing closures, are heavily used by fisheries management authorities globally. They are intended to benefit the targeted fisheries for which they have been designed, but also have conservation co-benefits that are rarely assessed or accounted for. In international fora, area-based fishery management measures with demonstrated conservation co-benefits are called ‘other effective area-based conservation measures’. ‘Other effective area-based conservation measures’ may exist in many sectors operating in the oceans, but are particularly important in fisheries where they directly contribute to their sustainability. They are currently receiving international attention because their effects on biodiversity conservation are in many ways similar to those of marine protected areas and may complement them, offering a new opportunity and perspective for a more ecosystemic approach to fisheries, thus contributing to achievement of Aichi Target 11. In November 2018, the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity officially adopted a definition of and criteria for identifying ‘other effective area-based conservation measures’. It is now urgent to analyze the implications of this important decision on fisheries management. There is a great need to develop specific guidance for fisheries to facilitate the implementation of the decisions. This presentation will summarize the outcomes of a recent FAO expert workshop (May 2019) that focused on discussing and drafting such guidance. These guidelines will promote effective ecosystem approaches to fisheries management, including examples from fisheries management in a global setting and provide opportunities to further enhance the documentation of the sustainability of seafood.







Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Fish politics national and global
Chaired by: Mills, E.

Transformations and transdisciplinarity for the sustainability of Mexican fisheries
Maria Jose Espinosa-Romero

Since the Third Convention on the Law of the Sea, most marine fish resources have been entrusted to states to ensure sustainable and equitable use. States thus, have become centrally involved in fisheries governance, and unfortunately have failed at reversing fisheries crisis on their own. New players have been filling management gaps, leading to new paradigms of governance. Theorizing the changing roles of the state across governance modes (hierarchies, co-governance, and self-governance) is necessary and represents the focus of this research. By using Mexican fisheries as a case study and the analysis of the legal framework, state values, state roles, and governance mode transformations are investigated. Results show that environmental values have been at the core of fisheries governance. These values have been combined with developmental and social equality value.. States have become a multi-tasking, ubiquitous, and imperfect agent acting in hybrid governance systems. Hierarchies are becoming stronger, with some levels of coordination and decentralization. Mechanisms for non-state actors participation have been integrated for fishers to influence institution-making, knowledge production, enforcement and surveillance; and for scientists to participate in knowledge production; other sectors have been excluded (e.g., civil society organizations). Self-governed groups support has decreased over time. State roles and governance transformations are due to international pressures, state capacity, and stakeholder readiness to participate in governing functions. States capacity for transforming fisheries governance could be used in a proactive manner to involve non-state actors in overarching goals of fisheries governance such as sustainability and social justice. In that sense, Comunidad y Biodiversidad is using a transdisciplinary approach, the SSF Guidelines and collaboration with community partners for strengthening state capacity to support fisheries governance and such overarching goals.


Global fisheries politics: Key issues, social movements and political events
Elyse N. Mills

This paper proposes a research framework for investigating global fisheries politics in the context of contemporary food systems and climate change, both historically and through emerging interconnections. This framework is particularly interested in the key transnational fishers’ movements engaging in fisheries politics, such as the World Forum of Fisher Peoples (WFFP) and the World Forum of Fish Harvesters and Fish Workers (WFF) – the study of which has become increasingly complex in the context of current global agrarian and environmental transformations. Partly fueled by the global resource rush and the expansion of industrial seafood production, these transformations are characterized by the commodification of nature and capital accumulation in aquatic spaces, the spread of climate change mitigation/adaptation initiatives, and the exclusion of small-scale fishers and dispossession of their access to traditional fishing territories and aquatic resources. For decades, fishers’ movements have been shaping their political agendas and mobilizing around these issues, yet these concerns are becoming more compounded, and subsequently more apparent, by emerging intersections between fisheries and food and climate politics. Thus, this paper proposes the study of fisheries politics via three interconnected themes: the key issues (topics of concern) that are propelling contemporary fisheries politics; the key social movements (transnational alliances) that are engaging with the issues; and the key political events (moments of interaction) where movements are participating. It combines selected political economy and ecology tools, in order to investigate the role of issues, movements and events in shaping fisheries politics, extending existing discussions of food and agrarian politics to include more recent and emerging connections with climate and fisheries politics.


Understanding fish politics: A comparative approach towards explaining policy change in fisheries
Kirill Orach & Maja Schlüter

Sustainable management of fisheries requires adaptive policymaking, however as shown by many cases of fisheries collapses around the world, successfully responding to social-ecological change with policy change and innovations can be challenging. Fisheries are complex and highly dynamic social-ecological systems. Changes in policies that influence managerial activity and resource use also emerge from a dynamic process in which actors and groups with diverse interests and beliefs interact, perceive new information and adapt their behavior. The field of sustainability science through a variety of case studies has highlighted a set of key processes beneficial for adaptive governance – such as collaboration, learning or polycentricity. Research on social-ecological transformations has also produced a great amount of in-depth case studies, that describe and analyze processes of transformative change in fisheries. With presence of rich empirical data, research on transformations and adaptive change in fisheries’ governance calls for generalization and theory-building as well as for explanations that take into account emergent and political nature of these processes. In this manuscript we analyze a series of case studies of policy change and transformations in fisheries social-ecological systems with the aims to: i) indicate key drivers, causal processes and conditions leading to change, ii) synthesize and compare the cases to develop hypotheses about the mechanisms of change and their scope conditions. In our analysis we use published case study research as well as conduct interviews with experts and researchers to supplement our understanding of the political and social-ecological context of change. Based on our comparison we develop a set of causal mechanisms of political change and adaptation in fisheries and propose further steps towards refining and testing the mechanisms with the help of a stylized agent-based model.


Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Fisheries economies as social economies
*Panel description and paper abstracts in attachment
Chaired by: Johnson, D. & Idrobo, C.

Fisheries economies as social economies
Derek Johnson
University of Manitoba


Our panel is fish stew composed of ingredients from diverse sources and diverse seas. It brings together researchers from four continents interested in fisheries economies in the broad sense. We are guided loosely by the idea of social economies – that is approaches to fisheries economies inspired by economic anthropology and economic geography where the economic is seen as embedded in history, culture, social relations, and politics. This perspective broadens the traditional focus on coasts and fishing to encompass the long-distance and landward itineraries that fish take after being landed, and the diverse ways in which they are valued that shape their trajectories of travel. We look for the new opportunities that this broad vision generates – connections to the unexpected, as in the importance of land tenure for fisheries transition, how small-scale fisheries are associated with alternatives to development, how lessons from food movements translate into fisheries, and how appalling labour conditions result from place-specific geographies of environmental, social and economic change.

Literature/articles presentations:

A social economy approach to dried fish value chains in Asia 
Derek Johnson, Ben Belton, Mark Hudson & Johny Stephen

Fisheries Development, Labour and Working Conditions on Myanmar’s Marine Resource Frontier.
Ben Belton

Planning for wellbeing: Re-imagining coastal governance and direct fish trade in the Colombian Pacific
C. Julián Idrobo

Fishing for alternatives to development: wellbeing and diverse economies in the Tribugá Gulf 
Juanita Franky

Livelihood transitions from fishing to tourism: the role of land tenure
Michael Fabinyi

A Burial at Sea?: Cooperatives as the Potential Gravediggers of Fisher Capitalism

Jonah Olsen




Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Fishy Feminsts (1)
Chaired by: Gustavsson, M. & Knott, C.

Fishy Feminists (1): Drawing on the Past to Imagine Feminist Futures of Seas and Coasts 
Christine Knott & Madeleine Gustavsson
Memorial University & University of Exeter


Feminist theory has a long history of informing gendered aspects of fisheries in select pockets of mostly social science literatures (Frangoudes and Gerrard 2018). The development of these literatures over time have included a broadening of analysis in regard to both topics and subjects, moving away from focusing on just women in female dominated roles to understanding the ways in which changes to fisheries have gendered consequences, including masculinities (Fabinyi 2007; Power 2008; Turgo 2014). The variety of topics that have been taken up include, for example, waterscapes, climate change (Musinguzi et al. 2017), aquaculture (Williams et al. 2005), food security (Allison 2013; Harper et al. 2013) and ocean governance and conservation (Gissi 2018). More recently efforts to understand how individuals lived experiences within multiple sometime conflicting identities offer experiences of privilege and/or discrimination via intersectionality (Lokuge 2017). Some of the recent work also provides unique feminist theoretical viewpoints (Probyn 2016), and critiques gender as a practical or applicable concept in some fishery communities (Bennett 2005). This proposed workshop panel brings together new and seasoned researchers who are building on historical feminist informed lenses to further our understanding of fisheries and aquaculture workers and communities in new ways.

We propose a workshop model for our panel for a variety of reasons: First, our topic is inclusive of all three themes, but focuses more specifically on Stream 1: Making a living from coasts and oceans and Stream 2: Framing, knowing and dreaming coasts and oceans with a focus on new or emerging conceptual/theoretical contributions of feminist fisheries work that is based in the historical feminist literatures. Due to the conceptual nature of the papers, we feel a workshop model will allow more time for each paper to be discussed than a traditional paper panel format. Second, the workshop format compliments the deep discussions related to conceptual framings because the draft papers are submitted before the workshop and read by the key participants, and each paper is assigned a discussant who will provide specific comments and feedback, thus time is provided to digest the material and to engage in real and useful ways. Third, workshops allow for a group dynamic that spark discussion but also directly work with each paper to help strengthen them. Please see below for our submitted abstracts and tentative schedule based on two, 3-hour timeslots.


This is the 1st session in a series of 2

The substance of (sea) life and capitalism: Ecological-social reproduction, power and global change
Paul Foley

The purpose of this paper is to deepen analyses of life production relations that are of central concern to the feminist global political economy frameworks around which this special issue is organized. While the original approach recognized ecological relations in its methodological synthesis of power, production and social reproduction, most subsequent research engaging the approach focuses on areas such as household labour, health care, education, migration and macroeconomic governance. Much less work, however, analyzes relations between capital accumulation and ecological life-producing relations that ultimately sustain human and non-human life. The paper draws on elements of a “world-ecology,” commodity frontier perspective to argue for the integration of primary—ecological—production of the substance of life into the power, production and social reproduction global political economy framework. The paper draws on this synthesis to conduct a long-term analysis of one of the earliest commodity frontiers in capitalist history, Newfoundland fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Through an analysis of changing patterns of ecological production, household and community reproduction, state enclosure of ocean life production, and world market shifts, the paper suggests that we need to move beyond narrow consequentialist analyses of the role of capital accumulation in ecological exhaustion towards broader, integrated analyses of change that reveal dynamic and perhaps more hopeful struggles and potential for sustainable and progressive conditions of intergenerational social-ecological reproduction.

Smith Island: Family Frames and Gendered Knowledge
Jana Kopelent Rehak



On fluid bodies and disgruntled spirits: manifestations of gender in human-sea interactions 
Annet Pauwelussen  Yoshitaka Ota 

The current development of feminist approaches in maritime research produces critical reflections on the gendered relations, conditions and consequences of fishing practices and the reflection to our sense and body. Still, the sea is often assumed as a gender-neutral background for human practice, indifferent to memory or narratives that guide us to act “an independent man” or “tough woman’. Inspired by feminist environmental studies, we consider the marine environment as a gender-fluid multiplicity of agencies and explore how fishing and gleaning produce particular manifestations of masculine/feminine. Our argument is based on long-term anthropological research among sea people in Southeast Asia. In Palau, the practice of dive fishing by men requires stamina and eagerness. This masculine expression of individual physique is explained as traditional strength of man but also as the ability to subtly negotiate relations with currents and fish. The practice of dive fishing expresses a concept of matrilineal kinship that requires an emphatic relationship with fluid environment as gendered fellow beings. Likewise, In Indonesia, the gleaning practices of sea people to collect giant clams – an aphrodisiac - requires a skilful negotiation with ancestral and coral spirits, through singing, eating and possession. Considered as a ‘feminine’ domain in native terms, the practice of gleaning also shows how kinship relations extend to sea agencies and blurs the human/non-human distinction. To fish or glean means to skilfully navigate the sea as a relational and embodied engagement with a gendered and multiple sea, reflecting the fluidity embedded in social organisations, the "unstructured structure”.

Big Women, Small Fish, and the Myth of Banana-Based Patriarchy in Uganda 
Jennifer Lee Johnson
What futures become possible when we reworld the past? Okwalula abaana, literally, the “hatching of the children,” is an event still, although rarely, practiced along what is now Uganda’s southern littorals. During this event, children – and by extension their mothers – are conclusively determined to either belong to a family, or not. Importantly, okwalula abaana requires the skillful combination of produce from multiple provisioning traditions – and two elements that combine to make them palatable and possible – water and salt made from vegetal ash. Although previous scholars have described this event as marking the acceptance of new children into patriarchal, patrilineal, and patrilocal clans, by situating okwalula abaana at the littoral and alongside fish, this paper reveals that grandmothers, not patriarchs, guided and evaluated the behaviors and abilities of mothers as would-be members of communities to ensure that only good eggs eventually “hatched.” Although some ancestors of would-be members of littoral communities may have practiced a “famous fish avoidance,” to belong at the littoral and be granted stable access to land and other affordances that group membership provided, one had to learn and to teach others how to live well with fish – ways of being and belonging that situated the ethereal futures of men on the water and those of women on solid

Speakers
avatar for Jennifer Lee Johnson

Jennifer Lee Johnson

Assistant Professor, Anthropology, Purdue University
AP

Annet Pauwelussen

Postdoc researcher, Wageningen University Environmental Policy Group


Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Living On and Off the Sea: In memory of Jeremy Boissevain
Chaired by: Selwyn, T.

Living On and Off the Sea: In memory of Jeremy Boissevain
Tom Selwyn
University of London


The panel will explore the relation between the sea and its coastal communities. Topics covered include local histories of maritime industries – including fishing and agriculture, oyster and shell fish production, foods of the sea, imagined land and sea scapes, coastal imagery and memorialisation, the material and symbolic place of coastal invaders/liberators/occupiers, coastal cities and their transformations, refugees and the sea, coastal tourism, seas and states, protecting the sea bed.

Transnational Solidarity Organizations in Greek coastal communities
Maria Kousis, Maria Paschou & Angelos Loukakis

In the past decade, coastal communities in Greece faced both the global economic as well as the refugee crises. This paper offers new findings from the (European Commission) TransSOL project on citizens’ transnational solidarity initiatives, organized outside of the state, and the ways in which they respond to the impacts of these crises. It aims to map and provide an exploratory account of Transnational Solidarity Organizations, the coastal communities they are based in, their constituency groups (beneficiaries and participants), as well as the ways in which their activities are situated and/or competing with tourism activities. The new primary data are based on a random sample of Transnational Solidarity Organizations (TSOs), which were active during the 2007-2016 period, as analyzed through their websites. (Themes 1+4) Key words: Transnational Solidarity Organizations, NGOs, solidarity groups, refugees, migration, Greece.


Civil society, government, and Oyster production on the Atlantic Coast. 
Roger Steer and Brigitte Voland

This paper describes various modes of living off the sea in the region around Beauvoir-sur-mer (pop 4800) in the Atlantic coast of La Vendee, France. A brief contextual introduction will lead into more detailed description and analysis of local productive enterprises - including oyster production, salt production, and tourism, together with the ancillary industries of these. Special emphasis will be made on relations between such local production, associated supportive civil society formations (including the municipality of Beauvoir itself), as well as regional/central/EU government. Reference will be made to the Macron inspired cuts to local and regional services supported by the government. A conclusion will point towards lessons learnt in the region about relations between local economies and government (stream 1) key words: Oysters, salt, tourism, La Vendee.

 
Drink wine and look at the moon and think of all the civilisations the moon has seen passing by.” (The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam): Cultural Contexts of Mediterranean Wine Production
Rachel Radmilli

Wine provision and production has been an integral part of economic production and trade in the Mediterranean. The few references to wine discovered in the notarial archives dating to the Knights period in Malta provide clues to some of the first forms of insurance underwriting. These insurance policies covered the precious wine cargo being transported from Spain, France and Sicily to Malta supplying the Knights with wine of quality that was pleasing to their taste. Today wine of quality is being developed locally where entrepreneurial skill is adopted to create new forms of cultural resources. This presentation will discuss the centrality of such cultural resources to understanding coastal economies. (stream 1) key words: wine, Knights of Malta, cultural entrepreneurship, Malta.



Plenty of Fish in This Sea. Anthropological Reflection on Heritage-Making in the North Adriatic
Nataša Rogelja

This paper will investigate how people and fish interact with the maritime heritages of the north Adriatic, how they co-create these heritages and how they make a living out of them.
The paper presents the diversity (and divergence) of stakeholder ideas and images of ‘heritage’and/or ‘heritages’ within the North Adriatic region. Notions (routinely conjured up by observers) of the N.Adriatic as a culturally and geographically homogenous unit will be disentangled from the actual diversities of lives and cultures in the region. We will loosely focus on the eastern coast and seas of the North Adriatic, specific for its historical and cultural connections to the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean. With imagined land and sea scapes representing latent but potentially highly influential parts of the relationship people forge with the sea (including its fluid materiality, its flora and fauna), coastal areas and communities, the paper’s main aim is to highlight the formation of imagined ‘heritages’ imaginaries connected to the Adriatic and some of the implications of the diversity for heritage management. (stream 1) key words: fish, identity, heritage, Slovenia.


Coastal political economies in the Mediterranean
Raoul Bianchi

This paper looks at emerging political economies of Mediterranean cities in the light of socio-spatial restructuring, emigration and immigration, and new forms of investment cycles and the enterprises with which these are associated. Part of the essay will use the city of Malaga as a case study. Apart from its beauty, ignored for decades during the previous tourism booms as tourists landed and were ferried out to the various satellite resorts such as Torremolinos, Malaga was fairly run down and seedy. Having received injections of both public and private investment (the nature of which will be spelt out, the emergence of Air BnB, new art galleries and the requisite branding, it has been completely transformed – in many ways for the better but concealing myriad new divisions as well – which the paper will identify and explore analytically (stream 1) Key words: coastal cities, investment, culture, Spain.

 
Placing West African Refugees in Malta in their Economic and Cultural Context.
Paul Clough

This paper will focus on the nature of personal interactions between West African undocumented immigrants in Malta and their Maltese employers and friends. It will examine a small number of case studies from different West African countries. In each case study, it will explore the nature of the interaction between West Africans and Maltese in terms of the economic and cultural contexts that they actually share. On that basis, it will develop an argument that shows the extent to which West Africans are well embedded in Maltese society and the reasons why this is so. It will end by discussing the problems which hinder a deeper interaction. In keeping with our desire to honour the memory of Jeremy Boissevain and his style of anthropology, this paper will be empirical in its method and inductive in its logic. (stream 1) key words: refugees, integration, Malta.

Speakers
RS

Roger Steer

Director, Healthcare Audit Consultants Ltd
I am an accountant and specialist in healthcare finance and policy issues.I live in Beauvoir-sur-mer France.My presentation is on Beauvoir-sur-mer: Living by the sea. The presentation examines Beauvoir in the round but focuses on the oyster industry based locally.Using material drawn... Read More →


Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Local Knowledge Systems and the Ocean
Chaired by: Barragan, M.J.

"Lost in translation" - Mapping spawning grounds using fishers' ecological knowledge
Emma Björkvik, Wiebren J. Boonstra & Vera Telemo

Fishers have vast and detailed knowledge of the marine social-ecological environments they depend upon. It is argued that fishers’ ecological knowledge represents a valuable complement to fisheries science, and should therefore contribute to fisheries management. In modern fisheries science, fishers’ ecological knowledge is often translated into quantitative outputs that are commensurable with the scientific models and assessments. However, much of the local richness characterizing fishers’ ecological knowledge risk being lost in such translation processes. Here, we focus on the ecological knowledge not captured in quantitative outputs and potential management implications. To do so, we build on a 10 year old Swedish study, in which fisheries scientists asked fishers to identify and map spawning grounds for different fish species. This information was then presented as GIS-layers. We re-visited the still active fishers that participated in the study and asked them about changes over time. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the changes fishers observe are largely explained by the changes they made in their fishing practices, and also reveals that capturing information about spawning areas on maps are not straightforward. Fishers’ perception of spawning grounds is highly diverse; some fishers are able to demarcate and locate areas precisely, while others are not able to do this. We argue that quantitative outputs based on fishers’ ecological knowledge can only contribute to fisheries management if they are understood and used in the light of the qualitative information explaining them. We further recommend scientists and managers to report back their results to the fishers in order to improve validity. Our study confirms that fishers’ ecological knowledge is best integrated in management and science through collaborative, participatory processes.



Winds and Seas: Kula travel and the impact of global forces
Susanne Kuehling

In the island region of the kula exchange system in southeast Papua New Guinea, the sea and the winds inhibited or facilitated the flow of valuables as they controlled canoe travel and the rain that is needed for yams gardening. The paper first describes the epistemology of the kula world of a ‘sea of islands’ (following Hau’ofa), bound by seasons, subsistence, and canoe travel. The changes in transport and the ever increasing impact of the market economy are currently changing the notion of the sea as a space that can be braved. Cruise ships and other tourist tours contribute to the sellout of this unique exchange network while at the same time alerting politicians to the commercial value of “custom”. My paper will address how the kula masters themselves are trying to remedy the negative effects on kula caused by the changes. Data for the paper was collected during 25 years of research in the kula region, including two boat expeditions visiting almost all kula islands (2016, 2018) in close collaboration with kula masters (as a ‘research team’).


Imaginations beyond Cartography: Contesting Politics of Alappad’s Fishers in Kerala, India
Nidheesh Suresh

In introducing my own fishing village in Kerala, Alappad, I look at the politics of contesting frameworks around sea-and-shore as practised spaces: fishing, mining, coastal highway, Mata Amritanandamayi Math and Coastal Regulation Zone. In addressing the question posed by the conference text, ‘how do the forms of knowledge produce and communicate, and why some forms are more influential:’ I look at how the spaces mentioned before tend to create a binary of land and sea which is cartographically defined. Ironically even the protest movements adopt cartography in their narration. The cartographic knowledge creation in Alappad goes back to colonialism in 1911 when the mining began. Then, in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission was formed, and the export of monazites was stopped. 1950 marked the opening of a rare earth survey unit as well as the Indian Rare Earth Limited. In 1954, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visited Alappad and in 1965 Indian Rare Earth Limited started mining.
My vantage points to elaborate on the contemporary construction of Alappad are: a) as a space of extraction and b) as a space of resistance. However, being from the fishing community, I find that the way sea and land has been engaged with and practised does not follow cartographic logic. The earlier engagements of the fishing community with land and sea generated forms of knowledge which were non-cartographic. I argue that knowledge, memory, culture and property of fishermen are co-produced by practices that connect land and sea. I believe the conceptual frames and perspectives need to delve into the confluent practice of land and sea. As Jacobson said, “we are made for and made by that thin world where land meets sea.


Speakers
NS

Nidheesh Suresh

PhD Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai


Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Sargassum Blooming in the Carribean: Human and Environment Interactions.
* The panel description including paper abstracts can be found in the appendix.

Chaired by: Fraga, J. & Ménez, F.

SARGASSUM BLOOMING IN THE CARIBBEAN: HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS
Julia Fraga & Florence Ménez
CINVESTAV Mérida & Université des Antilles


In the last five years sargassum blooming in the widder Caribbean represents a really socio-environmental problem. In 2011 Sargassum abruptly changed the seascapes of the Caribbean. The origen and impacts are really unknows. Experts said that the brow pelagic macroalgue comes from a new region (NEER) front Brasil and Western Africa and not really come from Sargasso Sea in the BermudasTriangle
Recently sargassum patterns were relatively easy to predict but not easy to manage (collect, transport and valorise). Mexico and French Caribbean were really impacted ecologically, sanitary, economically.The Sargassum tend to focus in lost revenue from tourism, fishing and create a sanitary crisis.Sargassum deposits grew to several meters thick obscuringthe sand and turning nearshore marine waters into seething sargassum nightmare or ¿probably opportunities for the coastal actors?

The wider caribbean included 26 countries with 44,303, 577 of population with a high dependency in tourism and fishing activities. Represent a 9% for the Gross National Economy of te region. Represent a hot spot marine biodiversity in the region but now confront the sargassum blooming. With a simplistic hyphotesis probably the region lost more million of dollars for the prevention and mitigation of the sargassum blooming than the reconstruction of areas after the impacts of hurricanes. Hurricanes in a temporal scale pass not almost 36 heuresbatting the coastal infrastructures instead Sargassum floting and sargassum alongshore washes occurred between four and eight months since 2011. Sargassum in the beaches is a titanic activity for the states and tourism resorts expanded in the caribbean littoral. Sargassum arrival with fish, contaminants, bacteria, virus, plastics is really an environmental impacts almost impossible to quantify.

In the region fishing represent only a 1% of the Gross National Product but million of people from rural areas migrate seasonality to the fishing sector for to survival.Coral reefs in the caribbean with this sargassum blooming impact the marine fauna and flora. By the side of leisure industries, and the employees of the tourism industry, mainly seasonal employeescombining rural and coastal activities are in serious problems.

What’s the experience of Sargassum blooming in the Widder Caribbean? What’s the lessons learned in socioecological impacts? What’s the stakeholders responses, mainly tourism and fishing sector?There are a sanitary problems with the collectors of sargassum? How science, policy and society confront the Sargassum crisis and How does confronted by local population in the Caribbean?
The panel highlights to evaluate the differents mechanisms that institutions and socioeconomic actors confront with sargassum blooming. At same time, the panel want to identify future researchtaking into account a Ecosytem Based Management (EBM) perspective for the Oceans. Sargassum Blooming in French Caribbean : Building and Overcoming Crisis and Socio-environmental Dimension of the Sargassum blooming in Mexican Caribbean are compromised in this panel.


SARGASSUM BLOOMING IN FRENCH CARIBBEAN ISLANDS: BUILDING AND OVERCOMING CRISIS
Florence Ménez


SARGASSUM IN THE MEXICAN CARIBBEAN: MANAGEMENT AND ACTIONS
Laura Hernández-Terrones & Antonio Almazán-Becerril


SARGASSUM BLOOMING IN THE NORTH TOURISTIC PLAGES OF MEXICAN CARIBBEAN
Julia Fraga, Daniel Robledo, Katia Frangoudes & Denis Bailly




Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:30

Ex-Keynote: Maritime & Coastal communities
Chaired by: Linke, S. & Delaney, A.

X-Keynote panel 3: Maritime and Coastal Communities
Katrina Brown, University of Exeter
Anthony Charles, St. Mary’s University
Kevin St. Martin, Rutgers University

This session addresses past and current challenges faced by coastal communities from a social science perspective from three prominent X-keynote speakers. Kevin St. Martin in his 2013 keynote spoke on “communities” and “the environment” as key actors within the emerging regime of marine spatial planning, and traced movement through existing networks of marine environmental governance. In 2015 Katrina Brown, after highlighting the numerous challenges facing coastal communities, addressed the importance of power and social relations in building resilience. In his work, Anthony Charles (special invitee) built from the formative experiences of the Canadian cod collapse of the 1990s, and saw how the goal for fishers was strong and healthy communities and environments. This panel reflects on the ongoing relevance of these contributions and aims to discuss implications for maritime social science researchers and the possibilities for developing alternative visions of future fisheries and coastal communities. Concrete challenges faced by communities include: fisheries depletion and resource scarcity, urbanization and industrialization under dominant neoliberal approaches to environmental governance, and enclosure of the ocean commons and spatial planning. These challenges relate to key governance issues like empowerment and agency of communities with respect to their contextual needs, place-based culture and identities, and their opportunities for participation and representation in existing governance systems. This session invites the speakers and the audience to rethink and discuss the role of the marine social sciences in relation to the challenges addressed and how we can contribute to revealing the potential of coastal communities for a more sustainable future.

Speakers
avatar for Anthony Charles

Anthony Charles

Professor & Director, Community Conservation Research Network, Saint Mary's University


Thursday June 27, 2019 10:30 - 12:00
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

12:00

Lunch
Thursday June 27, 2019 12:00 - 13:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Ecosystem services
Chaired by: ...

Exploring how non-native seagrass species could provide essential ecosystems services: a perspective on the highly invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in the Caribbean Sea
Inés G. Viana, Rapti Siriwardane, Demian A. Willette & Lucy Gwen Gillis


Introducing the ecosystem service concept in Norwegian coastal governance: gradual change or shallow reform
Ingrid Kvalvik, Ann-Magnhild Solås & Patrick Berg Sørdahl


A multi-modal methodology for exploring cultural ecosystem services at the coast
Merryn Thomas, Erin Roberts, Karen Henwood & Nick Pidgeon



Assessing fishing community wetland dependencies and management effects on the Elephant Marsh Fishery in Malawi
 Ishmael B.M. Kosamu, Marije Schaafsma. Rebecca Spake & Dr. Jane





Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Fishy Feminsts (2)
Chaired by: Gustavsson, M. & Knott, C.

Fishy Feminists (1): Drawing on the Past to Imagine Feminist Futures of Seas and Coasts
Christine Knott & Madeleine Gustavsson
Memorial University & University of Exeter


Feminist theory has a long history of informing gendered aspects of fisheries in select pockets of mostly social science literatures (Frangoudes and Gerrard 2018). The development of these literatures over time have included a broadening of analysis in regard to both topics and subjects, moving away from focusing on just women in female dominated roles to understanding the ways in which changes to fisheries have gendered consequences, including masculinities (Fabinyi 2007; Power 2008; Turgo 2014). The variety of topics that have been taken up include, for example, waterscapes, climate change (Musinguzi et al. 2017), aquaculture (Williams et al. 2005), food security (Allison 2013; Harper et al. 2013) and ocean governance and conservation (Gissi 2018). More recently efforts to understand how individuals lived experiences within multiple sometime conflicting identities offer experiences of privilege and/or discrimination via intersectionality (Lokuge 2017). Some of the recent work also provides unique feminist theoretical viewpoints (Probyn 2016), and critiques gender as a practical or applicable concept in some fishery communities (Bennett 2005). This proposed workshop panel brings together new and seasoned researchers who are building on historical feminist informed lenses to further our understanding of fisheries and aquaculture workers and communities in new ways.


This is the 2nd session in a series of 2.
Exploitation and Expectations: The Dynamics of Masculinity in Off-shore Fishing Labour
Georgina Alonso

This paper consists of a feminist political ecology analysis of off-shore fishing labour in Southeast Asia, asking how gendered pressures and practices are linked to poor working conditions in off-shore fisheries. As the vast majority of off-shore fishing labour is done by men, this paper focuses on the masculinities embodied by fishers, captains and boat owners, as well as the connections to other intersecting identities and forms of power. This paper seeks to unpack how notions of masculinity contribute to or help sustain exploitative fishing labour. The links to ecological decline are also importantly examined as declining fish stocks push commercial fishing boats into more dangerous conditions further into the high-seas where extreme labour abuses have more frequently been found to exist. In the context of a recent warning that the continuation of unsustainable fishing practices at the current pace will lead to a complete collapse of fish stocks in the Asia Pacific by 2048, the exposure of slavery scandals in the seafood sector across Southeast Asia, and the numerous Southeast Asian countries facing possible trade sanctions from the European Union for Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, this research is particularly important. Although some research exists regarding gender and masculinities in fishing, there is limited research that links labour, ecology and gender, a gap which this paper seeks to address.

Women’s contributions to fisheries through a feminisation lens
Madeleine Gustavsson

Researchers have recently called for more research on the socio-cultural lifeworlds of fishing but these discussions have so far not filter through to methodological considerations. This paper draws on my experiences as a doctoral researcher, investigating the socio-cultural context of fishers and fishing, using various qualitative in-depth techniques in interviews with fishers and fishing family member. Taking inspiration from discussions within feminist, rural and socio-cultural geography, the paper will first explore practical and ethical issues around getting access and fitting in with the rhythms of fishing. Second, the paper examines how the particular field of fishing, where fishers navigate their individuality with a sense of being part of a community, needs to be taken into consideration when conducting interviews. Third, this paper explores some particular challenges of getting access to the stories of women in fishing families and the different social dynamics which interviews with fishing families can constitute. On a fourth note, the paper will highlight some issues around ethical interviewing as well as a discussion of positionality present within research in a male-dominated environment. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research and calls for a broader engagement with methodologies in social research on fisheries.

A framework to enhance women’s work in value adding activities in small-scale fisheries
Carmen Pedroza-Gutiérrez & Holly Hapke

Women’s work along the fisheries value-chains, mainly in processing and selling activities, is enhancing household income and transforming social dynamics in some local cultures. But this work remains unrecognized and undervalued, and women continue to be excluded from decision making. Therefore, one of the major challenges in fisheries research is to find ways to enhance the value of women’s paid and unpaid activities and representation along the fisheries value chain. A step to achieve this is to develop a model that combines socioeconomic and strategic management perspectives. Therefore, this study aims to construct a theoretical framework to analyze how female fish processing activities create value and enhance competitive advantage along the fisheries value chain. This framework combines the Resource-Knowledge-Based-View (RKBV) and Value-Chain-Analysis (VCA). The RKBV considers knowledge, in this case female-knowledge, as a source for capability creation, in other words a value-creating-strategy. VCA is used as diagnostic-assessment tool to understand and describe how and in which links the operations performed by women create value that is then transformed into surplus. Findings should emphasize that: a) to make gender visible in fisheries it is necessary to identify how and where value and profit are created by women in each node of the value chain, b) the necessity of combining quantitative and qualitative analyses to understand and explain how women in fisheries’ real life perspectives make their living from fish resources, and c) the importance of the valuable assets emerging from women’s work and general contribution in small-scale fisheries. Therefore, recognizing the value women’s activities have, is a key element to confer them power and to make visible an invisible workforce.

Feminists Theorizing Fisheries: Roots and Futures
Christine Knott, Barbara Neis & Nicole Power






Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

On the move: Inclusion and exclusion in fishing communities in Asia
Chaired by: Weeratunge, N.

On the move: Inclusion and exclusion in fishing communities in Asia
Nireka Weeratunge
 International Centre for Ethnic Studies (ICES)


Mobility is integral to fishing, centred on the pursuit of a mobile resource. Fishing communities in Asia reveal different types of mobility - e.g. seasonal fisheries migration, transition from near-shore to deep-sea fishing, migration for non-fisheries livelihoods. Processes of migration and mobility can confront heterogenous social groups with one another or reconfigure homogenous social groups. Based on the results of a three-country research project combining qualitative/quantitative methods in Cambodia, Tamil Nadu (India) and Sri Lanka, this panel will explore issues of social inclusion and exclusion in the context of migration and mobility, focusing on gendered social networks and identities in fishing communities. The papers will look at how women and men mobilise social networks and construct identities to enable or disable mobility, negotiate conflicts over access to fish resources between migrant and host groups, as well as cope with precariousness and build resilience through migration processes. Depletion and sustainability of the fisheries resource remains a critical concern of fisheries governance. However, contestation of rights and fairness in access to the resource emerge as greater concerns to fishing communities, as also the construction of fishing itself as a ‘skilled’ identity. Ascertaining the ways in which some groups benefit from mobility/migration while other groups are excluded is central to this discussion.


Gendered mobility, fish vending and powers of exclusion in Batticaloa and Ampara districts, Sri Lanka
Ragnhild Lund & Fazeeha Azmi

Fishing in distant waters: Gendered discourses of resource access, skill and wellbeing on the west coast of Tamil Nadu 
Nitya Rao & C. M. Pratheepa

Migration and wage work: Precariousness in the fishing communities in Cambodia
Kyoko Kusakabe & Prak Sereyvath

Migration, resource access and contestation: Networks and rights discourses among fishers in the West and East coasts of Sri Lanka
Nireka Weeratunge & Nadine Vanniasinkam

Participatory video: Youth perspectives on migration and aspirations from four fishing communities in Sri Lanka
Nadine Vanniasinkam



Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Scrutinizing aquaculture
Chaired by: Putten, I.

The link between rapid industry development and disease management in the Chilean salmon industry
Ingrid van Putten, Amara Steven, Shane Richards, Eriko Hoshino & Beth Fulton


Chile is the second largest exporter of Salmon after Norway. Salmon aquaculture in Chile has developed rapidly and it contributes significantly to the regional and national economy. Horizontal and vertical integration of the industry has meant the structure of the aquaculture sector is now quite different than when it first commenced. In the past decade, there have been a number of large scale disease outbreaks that have had severe economic impacts. On farm disease management and reporting requirements have changed partly as a consequence of these past disease events. From an environmental, animal health, and economic perspective effective sanitary management is key to the success of individual farms. We use a bio-economic model to assess the effect of increased production and falling prices; different sanitary management; reduced mortality; varying production phase starting dates, and the effect of an extreme event for Atlantic salmon, Coho salmon, and Rainbow trout in the two main growing regions in Chile. We discuss the aspects of the human dimension of disease management in aquaculture in Chile and consider the implications of rapid development and change in the structure of the industry.


Navigating through a sea of indicators: The impression, implementation and impact of sustainability certification for salmon aquaculture
Vilde Steiro Amundsen

​Despite the proliferation of the concept of ‘sustainability’, there lacks a consensus as to what it actually entails and how it can be accomplished. Still, it is often spoken of as if it were a specific goal to be achieved through environmental conservation and ‘the social stuff’. As with other all-embracing umbrella terms (e.g. globalization and culture), its actual meaning emerges through the content that the concept is given when operationalized. In the SustainFish project, we have explored an important source of content for sustainability in aquaculture: sustainability certification.
Certification schemes develop standards consisting of criteria in the form of indicators, with which aquaculture companies need to comply in order to become certified. These indicators must be measurable, transferable and comparable, allowing the same standard to be applied across different companies and countries. While standards emanate from the idea of objectivity, it is important to keep in mind that they are both made and managed by people. By employing standardization as a means towards sustainability, an operationalized understanding of the concept is formed through different stages of translation.
Firstly, translating an idea into indicators involves stakeholders with different motives navigating the many challenges and tradeoffs of ‘sustainable aquaculture’, resulting in an array of standards that together produce an impression of sustainability. This is further translated through the implementation of the standards, where the aquaculture companies must interpret and adapt them to each organizational and geographical context. Lastly, the meaning of sustainability is translated through the impact of certification, as the implemented measures will necessarily bring about different outcomes depending on the local environmental, social and economic conditions.
Exploring the impression, implementation and impact of these standards provides valuable insight into the role of certification in making the aquaculture industry more sustainable, whatever that may entail.

Salmon aquaculture: environmental protection, food safety, escape prevention, animal welfare and disease control… um … oh yeah, worker health and safety?
Edgar McGuinness & Barbara Neis

​The expansion and development of aquaculture capacity is a cornerstone of future plans to secure protein supplies for the growing world population. The largest growth sector within aquaculture in the Western world is the cultivation of salmonids, or more specifically Atlantic salmon, with production spreading to new countries and locations and expanding rapidly to increase production rates. Aquaculture research and development, including in governance, have largely focused on concerns about potential environmental harm, food safety issues, and animal welfare. Responsible pest and disease control, and the prevention of fish escapes have become priorities in the salmon aquaculture sector in particular. Less attention has been paid to documenting occupational health hazards, and to the prevention of injuries, illnesses and fatalities among aquaculture workers. A recent global review of aquaculture occupational health and safety (OHS) done for the FAO has highlighted a lack of research globally and the need for greater injury and illness prevention in the sector.
Norway is the largest producer of farmed salmon, and has also become the largest exporter of technologies, methodologies and indeed aquaculture companies, worldwide. Norway has a very highly developed regulatory framework covering its aquaculture industry, including health and safety. Despite this, Norwegian research shows that aquaculture is the second most dangerous industry in the country. This research presents a comparative analysis of aquaculture OHS regulatory regimes, in Norway and multiple Canadian provinces with a focus on salmon aquaculture operations. It will compare the depth and breadth of aquaculture legislation relevant to OHS and highlight areas for future improvement within health and safety in the expanding Canadian salmon aquaculture industry. Key findings demonstrate an absence of legislative control over many potentially hazardous aspects of the Canadian aquaculture work environment, from the application of risk assessments and safety management, to workboat and cage design.

Ocean Stories: Framing the sea for management
Sarah Wise

Global oceans are changing at an unprecedented pace challenging the ways we know and interact with the sea. Differing epistemologies inform and frame decision-making processes, as well as the ways we value and use the ocean. In the Arctic, western science and resources managers have turned to indigenous and traditional knowledges (I&TK) to explore changes in the marine ecosystem. Indigenous Alaskans have been profoundly connected to their land and seascapes for centuries, and have gathered deep-rooted knowledge reflecting generations of environmental observation and engagement. A growing body of literature reveals increased interest and ongoing effort to collect I&TK (on marine mammals, sea ice, and increasingly, climate change); however there remain difficulties to incorporating divergent knowledges into management processes, including epistemological differences, communication of various knowledge, and equity issues. How knowledge is perceived and represented among scientists, community members, and policy makers intersects with questions of equity and representation: whose knowledge is selected as representative and whose may be obscured? Within a U.S. national fisheries context, how can multiple knowledge systems be integrated into policy? Is it possible to manage the sea based on multiple—and at times, conflicting—perspectives? This project focuses on two ongoing NOAA fisheries research and management projects (the Federal Bering Sea Fisheries Management Plan and The Oral Histories of Alaska Native fisherwomen in Bristol Bay). Using text analysis and conceptual modeling methods, the research explores barriers and areas for convergence to incorporate I&TK into fisheries management in the Bering Sea. Additional research is necessary to better understand epistemological differences and issues of equity and within knowledge hierarchies as it relates to resource management. This work seeks to contribute to social science research on knowledge systems, ecos


Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Small-scale fishing communities in the front lines of climate risk: learning from extreme weather events. (1)
Chaired by: Monnereau, I., Kalikoski, D., Charles, A. & Turner, R.

Small-scale fishing communities in the front lines of climate risk: learning from extreme weather events in Asia and the Caribbean
Iris Monnereau, Daniela Kalikoski, Anthony Charles, Rachel Turner
ICSF/FAO/CCRN
 
This session takes as a point of departure that small-scale fishing communities are the first to experience the consequences of changing storm patterns and intensities, which are associated with climate change. In the past year, South Asia has undergone two catastrophic cyclones: Cyclone Ockhi, that caused a massive loss of fisher lives and major damage along the south-west coast of India, and Cyclone Gaja that has just hit the south-east coast of the same country, with devastating results. The Caribbean too is affected badly by annual hurricanes with Hurricane Maria and Irma causing massive destruction of the fisheries sector in, respectively, Dominica and Antigua and Barbuda. From 4 March 2019 onwards, the landfall of Cyclone Idai and subsequent widespread flooding led to significant damage to livelihoods, infrastructures and assets in Mozambique, with extensive damage to fisher folks’ assets.

Natural disasters are often followed by a poorly planned fisheries emergency response leading to another disaster: over capitalisation, increased competition for resources and unfavourable distribution of resources. There is also often a lack of incorporation of the fisheries sector into damage and loss assessments resulting in limited access to relief funds after disaster for the region.

Recent discussion of the impacts of hurricanes on the fisheries sector in the Caribbean (2018 Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute Conference) concluded that more work needs to be done to prevent and mitigate impacts such as : the ICT training of fisherfolk to enhance early warning, safety-at-sea training, and Post-Disaster Damage and Needs assessment training for fisheries officers and DRM personal. These actions are needed because the fisheries sector is often considered too complex and is data deficient and is therefore overlooked by humanitarian actors in post-disaster assessments which leads to lack of funds for rehabilitation in comparison to other sectors. Effective adaptation support is also limited by knowledge gaps relating to the needs and choices of fishers, fishing households and wider communities, and the potential opportunities for insurance to support fisherfolk.

Fishers in both South Asia and the Caribbean and Africa are generally used to living with storms and their impacts, as these are part of regular climatic patterns. But with the process of climate change, storm risks are starting to change, with important implications for disaster preparedness and response. Not only are knowledge systems (local and scientific) struggling to deal with new meteorological patterns and generate timely alerts, higher intensity storms also challenge the performance of communication and warning systems, evacuation facilities, and modes of disaster response.

Fishing is one of the most risky professions on the planet (ILO ref.), and it is clear that fishing communities, which are by necessity located along the shoreline, generally suffer first risk of being affected by heavy winds, rain and water surges. It is for this reason that the Voluntary Guidelines on Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries devote a chapter to disaster risks and climate change, enjoining governments and other societal parties to pay special attention to disaster preparedness and emergency response. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 1, 2, SDG 13 and SDG 14) too are relevant in this regard.

This session takes the experiences of South Asia and the Caribbean as starting point for a larger debate on fishers and climate resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations. The session will include two panels presenting both scientific papers and recent project activities, plus a round table discussion. The session is associated with current work (FAO/SMU etc.) on the nexus between poverty and climate change, with the work of the Community Conservation Research Network on coastal communities’ role in environmental stewardship and sustainable livelihoods, and with ICSF’s focus on impacts and responses to climate change. It hopes to contribute to new research endeavors and the international policy debate.

Panel 1: Impacts and early warning of extreme weather events on small-scale fisheries:

Hurricane Preparedness and Post-disaster Needs of the Fisheries Sector in the Eastern Caribbean under the CC4FISH ProjectIris Monnereau

Most SIDS are located in the tropics and subtropics where changes in weather patterns due to climate change are expected to be most pronounced. The Caribbean region has been affected by unusual extreme weather events over the last few decades and it has been shown that more tropical storms in the Atlantic are developing into dangerous high intensity hurricanes. Changes in the intensity of storms and hurricanes threaten the fisheries sector as it can have potentially catastrophic impacts through disruption of fishing activity, damage to fishing vessels, gear, and coastal infrastructure, impacting the safety of fishers at sea, and jeopardizing the wellbeing of fishers and fishing communities. In 2017, hurricanes brought devastation to vulnerable Caribbean fisheries, in particular to the islands of Dominica and Barbuda. The Climate Change Adaptation of the Eastern Caribbean Fisheries Sector Project (CC4FISH) of the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) of the UN, seeks to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in the Eastern Caribbean fisheries sector. The CC4FISH is supporting disaster risk mitigation, disaster preparedness, early warning systems, post disaster responses and recovery actions, safe harbor plans, disaster management plans for the fisheries sector in the Caribbean. This presentation will discuss the various action and the opportunities and challenges thereof for the region.

Climate change, poverty and food security: how countries and communities respond to this nexus?
Daniela Kalikoski

This session takes the experiences of South Asia and the Caribbean as starting point for a larger debate on fishers and climate resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations. The session will include two panels presenting both scientific papers and recent project activities, plus a round table discussion. The session is associated with current work on the nexus between poverty and climate change, with the work of the Community Conservation Research Network on coastal communities’ role in environmental stewardship and sustainable livelihoods, and with ICSF’s focus on impacts and responses to climate change. It hopes to contribute to new research endeavors and the international policy debate.




Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Theorising the implementation of marine policies and plans. (1)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Stojanovic, T.

Theorising the implementation of marine policies and plans (1)
Gunnar Sander & Tim Stojanovic

management processes. Through its engagement in supporting the implementation of the SSF Guidelines and experience with similar processes (e.g. Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests and Right to Food Guidelines), FAO has a good overview of the many attempts for putting the SSF Guidelines into practice. The paper will summarize key implementation approaches from different stakeholders, and related challenges and opportunities. A key question will be to reflect over which of the approaches taken that seems promising in delivering results that will change the operating conditions for small-scale fishers.


Considering early warning systems for hazards in small-scale fisheries
Patrick McConney

Policy implementation research: its origin, evolution and state-of-the-art
Harald Saetren

The application of a framework for implementation studies in studying implementation of ecosystem-based management plans
Gunnar Sander

Experiences with the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines)

Nicole Franz & Lena Westlund



Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Transdisciplinary Methods for a healthy Ocean
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment

Chaired by: Van Etwijk, E.

The transformative potential of citizen science in marine governance processes
Ben McAteer


The science-policy boundary for ICES fish stock advice: changing norms and practices
Kåre Nolde Nielsen, Sebastian Linke & Petter Holm


On the Same Side of the Table. WKIRISH: an Example of Positive Collaborative Research
David G. Reid, Debbi Pedreschi, Paul Bouch, Jacob Bentley, Francis O'Donnell, Robert Thorpe, Steven Beggs, Pia Schuchert & Sheila J.J. Heymans


How do you identify fishermen's intentions? A reflection on the qualitative data collection within the Fishing Style method
Anne de Jong



Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Ex-Keynote: Coastal resilience/management
Chaired by: M. Knol & H. Toonen

X-Keynote panel 4: Coastal management and resilience
Leontine Visser, Wageningen University
Peter Burbridge, University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell, Oxford and Middlesex Universities

Coastal management and resilience are the central focus of this final X-keynote panel. Leontine Visser, Wageningen University, reflects upon the first title in the MARE publication series (2004), in which she developed a research agenda for integrated coastal development, promoting integration and transdisciplinarity, and discusses its relevance today. In 2003, Peter Burbridge reviewed the origins of Integrated Coastal Management (ICZM) and explored the progress that had been made in implementing ICZM in Europe. He addresses what is needed for increased effectiveness and sophistication of management tools and processes. Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell (2009) discusses lessons learned from flood risk management in London in terms of the limitations of truly integrated coastal management. This will culminate in a discussion with and between the panelists on the possibilities and limitations of, and alternatives to integration and transdisciplinarity in coastal management and resilience. It will also explore the changing role of the social sciences - its concepts and methods, and its relation to society and other sciences - in grappling with coastal challenges.

Thursday June 27, 2019 13:00 - 14:30
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

14:30

Coffee and Tea Break
Thursday June 27, 2019 14:30 - 15:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Bainstorm Session: The systemic impacts of the Marine Stewardship Council: socio-economic effects of fisheries certification.
Chaired by: Van Putten, I. (CSIRO)

The systemic impacts of the Marine Stewardship Council: socio-economic effects of fisheries certification

Amanda Lejbowicz & Katie Longo

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an internationally renowned fisheries certification program, initiated to contribute to efforts to reduce unsustainable fishing and to safeguard seafood supplies for the future. A key, but unexplored, attribute of the program is the multi-stakeholder process that is typical of most fisheries engaging in the process. We argue that this component of program plays a key role in engendering improvement in fisheries. 
The experience of the last 20 years has shown that successful fisheries certification processes and high performing improvement projects are characterised by active collaboration and formal partnerships between stakeholders, including fishers, processors, retailers, government, NGOs and scientists. The consequence of it has been the implementation of actions driving improvements in the management of many fisheries, with some progressing to become certified.
However, the socio-economic benefits that result from the multi-stakeholders partnerships during certification processes and fisheries improvement projects are still underexplored. Non-market incentives, such as investment opportunities, increased collaboration among stakeholders or improved transparency in the fisheries management are among the unintended aspects of the MSC certification that we invite a diverse range of experts to brainstorm on. Their experience with fisheries of different sizes and natures will bring new angles of reflexion about the potential of the MSC to be used as a tool, not only to preserve or restore fisheries, but also to drive socio-economic improvements in fisheries.





Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Coastal Communities, Conservation and Livelihoods: A Participatory discussion
Chaired by:
Anthony Charles
Director, Community Conservation Research Network
Saint Mary’s University
Halifax, Canada

Coastal Communities, Conservation and Livelihoods: A Participatory Discussion

This will be a participatory discussion session, in keeping with the philosophy of the Community Conservation Research Network (CCRN). The CCRN is a global research program, which – for the past 7 years – has involved over 60 researchers, Indigenous organizations and community bodies around the world in studying (a) coastal communities involved in environmental conservation sustaining livelihoods, and (b) governmental policy support for those communities [www.CommunityConservation.Net]. The session will begin with a short film, produced by the CCRN, to describe the links of Communities, Conservation and Livelihoods. This will be followed by a facilitated discussion of new developments and research priorities for the future, relating to the 2-way connection between the well-being of coastal communities and the health of local ecosystems, including how strong, cohesive communities enable conservation efforts. Further, it is clear that local community conservation initiatives benefit when supported by governmental policy. Notably, recognizing community knowledge helps to improve both the economy and the environment. It is well established that active and meaningful engagement of local communities and indigenous rights-holders in resource decision-making and monitoring can lead to improved conservation and governance. Accordingly, the session will explore two major themes: (1) community-based conservation is essential to livelihoods of local and indigenous people, also contributing significantly to sustainable local, regional and national economies, and (2) in parallel, adequate attention to the need for sustainable livelihoods in communities is an essential ingredient for successful environmental conservation and stewardship.
As this is not a conventional paper session but rather a fully participatory discussion session, there is no list of speakers to provide. If the session is accepted, the organizer will ensure several knowledgeable individuals are present to add insights and case studies to the discussion, and in any case, many of the conference participants will undoubtedly have expertise to share. It is anticipated that the opportunity to do so will lead to significant attendance at the session.


Speakers
DA

Derek Armitage

University of Waterloo
avatar for Anthony Charles

Anthony Charles

Professor & Director, Community Conservation Research Network, Saint Mary's University


Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.02 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

En)Gendering Change in Small-Scale Fisheries and fishing Communities in a Globalized Wold
Chaired by: Frangoudes, K., Gerrard, S. & Kleiber, D.

En)Gendering Change in Small-Scale Fisheries and Fishing Communities in a Globalized World
Katia Frangoudes, Siri Gerrard & Danika Kleiber
University of Brest


Coastal areas and communities have experienced major changes over recent decades. Some are under pressure by the rapid development, for example by urbanization, industrialization, climate change, mass tourism, etc and others have suffered economic depression as the activities that traditionally sustained coastal communities become increasingly unsustainable. These changes had economic impacts on the fishing, aquaculture and others related activities and modified the social role within coastal societies, with new social and cultural processes emerging in coastal areas.
Change has impacted men and women differently; the construction of gender and gender relations has consequences on the division of labor in fisheries, in coastal communities and also in the relationships in the community or vice versa. Despite this, research on gender and gender relations, as well as on women, in fisheries and aquaculture and their role in communities is scarce.
The interconnection between gender relations, work and community can include many topics and can vary from place to place dependent on the history, “materialities”, social and cultural conditions. Gender relations and communities can therefore be studied in many ways.
The propose panel aims to bring together authors of the two special issues of MAST and others scientists interesting on gender dimensions in fisheries and aquaculture (women organizations and movements, women work, gender and food security, trade of fish produce, etc..).

Note: This panel is organizing by the TBTI cluster women/gender in fisheries and aquaculture, OCEAN PAST PLATFORM, PERICLES H2020 project.


Women Fishers in Norway: Few, but Significant
Siri Gerrard & Danika Kleiber

Professional fishing and fisheries quota systems can affect women and men differently, yet gender analysis of quota systems is rare. This study will focus on the long-term gendered situation after Norway introduced the quota system in 1990. Using data from the national fishery registry and special data produced by the Directorate of Fisheries, we examine the changes in the number of women fishers, their regional and age distributions, as well as women’s boat-ownership and access to coastal fishing quotas. We contextualize the statistical data with participant observation, conducted in Finnmark between 1975 and 2017. This mixed method approach highlights the changes women and men in the fisheries have faced, while also addressing the political efforts of women fishers to improve their working conditions. Using a gender perspective to examine the interaction between cultural and structural barriers to women’s participation in Norway’s fisheries, this study examines the long-term gendered impacts of the fishery politics, included the quota policy. This contributes to a more nuanced and complete understanding of women fishers’ situation in a quota regime.

SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION IN EUROPEAN FISHING COMMUNITIES: WOMEN’S PERSPECTIVES

Esther Copete
The perceived effect of globalisation in fishery communities’ transformations together with the changing fishery governance is at the root of the disintegration of social ties and the discontent in declining fishery communities. Hence, the market in combination with political and social actors at the local, national, and transnational level creates the situation for understanding social cohesion in the context of weakening social equilibrium and social fabric. This paper analyses elements that hold individuals living in fishing communities together and focuses on women’s contribution to societies’ equilibria.
The investigation presented in this paper explores women’s perspectives on the socio-economic and cultural changes in European fishing communities through a social cohesion lens. Focusing on women’s collective and/or individual actions to enhance the wellbeing and living conditions of their communities’ members, the qualitative study is based on interviews carried out under the Geography of Inshore Fishing and Sustainability project between 2012 and 2015 in 14 case studies sites in England, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.
The use of the theoretical functional framework uncovers the roles of women within the fishery social structure in the maintenance of social cohesion and has allowed us to observe different views regarding the fishery community’s capacity to self-maintain. By exploring women’s roles in fishery communities’ changing social order, the study illustrates the boundaries between the personal and the political. Emerging findings suggest that women’s inclusion in policy decision-making forums contributes to the achievement of the social cohesion strategy of “shared responsibilities” which aims to connect institutions and actors (public and private), situated at different territorial levels.

 What is the role of wives of new fishers in Japan? 
Kumi Soejima

The number of fishers in Japan is decreasing. The population of 626,000 fishers in 1963 had declined to 160,000 by 2016. Only 1927 new fishers joined the industry in 2016. In many cases, the sons of fishers become new fishers. However, the sons of fishers are gradually choosing other industries not involving fishing, and the number of new fishers is declining. Therefore, the government has started to support people with no previous involvement with the fishery sector becoming fishers. The number of new fishers previously uninvolved with the fishery sector (whom I call “I-turn fishers,” using the Japanese phrase for one-way urban-to-rural relocation) is increasing nowadays.
If married, these I-turn fishers move with their wives and children from other areas to live in local fishing communities to become fishers. In most cases, these wives follow along with their husbands’ decisions to become fishers. Of course, a husband’s decision to become a fisher is important; however, it is also important whether the wife can or cannot adapt to her new lifestyle as a member of a fishing household and a fishing community. However, the government pays no attention to this. In some kinds of fishing, work, wives go out in boats to fish with their husbands. In many cases, wives become involved in land-based fishery work without going out in boats. However, there are no training opportunities for wives. Based on these circumstances, this presentation


Intangible Cultural Heritage and Fisheries: The role of women in Bretagne 
Katia Frangoudes, Sybill Henri & Juliette Herry

Traditionally, cultural heritage has been linked and designated around monuments or the collection of objects, known as tangible heritage, however, this has changed recently with the integration of traditions and living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed to the young generations. This transformation was partially produced through the UNESCO instruments which are now recognizing oral traditions, performing arts, rituals, social practices, knowledge and practices as well knowledge and skills that promote the traditional craft production as part of culture heritage. The importance of this intangible cultural heritage is not the cultural manifestation itself but rather the wealth of knowledge and skills that are transmitted from one generation to the next.
Along the Brittany coast in France, some maritime activities such as fisheries or shellfish farming are under pressure due to the ecological, technological, institutional changes and also to the lack of young people interesting to practice such activities. Even if taking place only in a few communities these activities represent an identity which has been enriching the legacy of the territories for centuries. Within the EU H2020 project PERICLES the aim

Speakers
AC

Afrina Choudhury

Research Fellow/Senior Gender Specialist, WorldFish
EC

Esther Copete

Researcher, University of Greenwich


Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Enhancing fisheries governability
Chaired by: Johnsen, J.P.

Strengthening Fisheries Governability through Human Behaviour Research in Atlantic Canada.

Human behaviour is an underexamined aspect of the governability of fishery systems. The governance of small-scale fisheries in Canada is no exception. Human behaviour is defined here as individual action that results from the cognitive processing of past, current, or imagined sensory information from social and biophysical environments. As a result, human behaviour is an important lens through which we can identify opportunities to strengthen governability by understanding fishers’ motivations to cooperate, share resources, follow rules, and respond to social-ecological change. This research draws on experiences with the governance of mixed inshore fisheries (e.g., shrimp, crab, lobster, cod) in Newfoundland, Canada and documents fisher behaviours, including the motivations behind decisions to invest, leave, diversify or join a fishery. To examine fisher behaviour and the implications for governability of mixed fisheries, several methods of data collection and analysis were used, including storytelling methods with fishers, fish processors, and fishing community residents, analysis of Atlantic Canadian fisheries policies, and a q-methodology activity with academics and governance actors to assess their subjective support for considering fisher behaviour at the policy level. Results reveal contradictions among actor perspectives about considering how and why fishers invest, leave, diversify and join a fishery that shape the capacity to address multiple social, economic, cultural, and ecological objectives. Furthermore, the structures and processes of governance were found to reinforce behavioural contradictions, as for example with limited capacity for coordination across governmental sectors and with academic social scientists, thus indicating systematic barriers to the strengthening fisheries governability in Atlantic Canada. As this research shows, an integrative and practical understanding of fisher behaviour is needed to help understand and address multiple objectives for the long-term sustainability of small-scale fisheries, and to develop policy processes with capacity to leverage human behaviour to strengthen governability.


From the mouths of stakeholders: understanding the need for innovative fisheries co-management
Debbi Pedreschi, Hannes Höffle, Audric Vigier, Keith Farnsworth & David G. Reid

The need for innovative forms of environmental governance has never been more urgent. In the face of much political and environmental uncertainty, managers need methods capable of responding to, and adapting with, the resource being exploited, and the operational, political, and legislative frameworks in which they operate. Real-time incentive (RTI) fisheries management is an innovative, adaptable framework, capable of responding in close to real-time to environmental/ecological data, whilst incorporating multiple biological, social and economic objectives. The RTI system presents an opportunity for developing a management system to support sustainable fisheries, whilst collaborating with stakeholders to develop a co-management approach that changes the choice architecture and provides avenues for inclusion of non-economic social objectives.
Here we present the experiences of the Celtic Sea RTI project which is working with stakeholders to share knowledge in order to develop a common understanding of management issues, identify opportunities for innovation along with barriers to implementation, and construct scenarios for management-strategy evaluation (MSE). We present the journey thus far as the lived experience of fishers informs understanding of historical conflict across various actors and policies that has led to the complexity of the status quo, and how we can use this information to move forward to more inclusive, holistic, and sustainable fisheries.


Framing the ‘problem’ in fisheries management: conversations with stakeholders and policy makers in Piura, Perú
Christopher Giordano

Northern Peru is a region rich in natural resources and cultural history. With coastal occupation from at least 150 B.C.E, the area is home to the highest concentration of artisanal fishermen and marine biodiversity within the country. Communication barriers between actors engaged in management of the coastal system has led to fragmented imaginings, including the ‘problems’ it faces in achieving improved management. One division of actors could be that artisanal fishermen and those selected to manage them. This paper explores This paper explores the differences and similarities of vision in current governance needs between these two groups, and how they believe governance problems must be resolved. It draws on a series of interviews and workshops conducted in 2018 with fishermen, their representatives, government regulators, and university researchers to produce 7 overarching categories of problems, their relative importance, and the perceived mechanisms for resolution. The paper concludes that despite identification of similar barriers to improved management, the discrepant placement of responsibility stems from distinct driver conceptualizations on the part of both actor groups.


Strengthening Fisheries Governability through Human Behaviour Research in Atlantic Canada
Evan J. Andrews, Jeremy Pittman & Derek Armitage

Human behaviour is an underexamined aspect of the governability of fishery systems. The governance of small-scale fisheries in Canada is no exception. Human behaviour is defined here as individual action that results from the cognitive processing of past, current, or imagined sensory information from social and biophysical environments. As a result, human behaviour is an important lens through which we can identify opportunities to strengthen governability by understanding fishers’ motivations to cooperate, share resources, follow rules, and respond to social-ecological change. This research draws on experiences with the governance of mixed inshore fisheries (e.g., shrimp, crab, lobster, cod) in Newfoundland, Canada and documents fisher behaviours, including the motivations behind decisions to invest, leave, diversify or join a fishery. To examine fisher behaviour and the implications for governability of mixed fisheries, several methods of data collection and analysis were used, including storytelling methods with fishers, fish processors, and fishing community residents, analysis of Atlantic Canadian fisheries policies, and a q-methodology activity with academics and governance actors to assess their subjective support for considering fisher behaviour at the policy level. Results reveal contradictions among actor perspectives about considering how and why fishers invest, leave, diversify and join a fishery that shape the capacity to address multiple social, economic, cultural, and ecological objectives. Furthermore, the structures and processes of governance were found to reinforce behavioural contradictions, as for example with limited capacity for coordination across governmental sectors and with academic social scientists, thus indicating systematic barriers to the strengthening fisheries governability in Atlantic Canada. As this research shows, an integrative and practical understanding of fisher behaviour is needed to help understand and address multiple objectives for the long-term sustainability of small-scale fisheries, and to develop policy processes with capacity to leverage human behaviour to strengthen governability.


Analyzing differing discourses in small-scale fisheries and conservation planning
Samantha Williams

The last decade has seen vast changes occurring in the South African small-scale fisheries sector. These changes were spurred on by the increased need to ensure more equitable distribution of and access to fisheries resources especially to communities and individuals who were


Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

On ideals: towards circumspect and contingent knowledge in maritime worlds
Chaired by: Sridhar, A. & Siriwardane-de Zoysa, R.

On ideals: towards circumspect and contingent knowledge in maritime worlds
Aarthi Sridhar & Rapti Siriwardane-de Zoysa

The problem of excess and the unwanted is central to natural resource politics and its governance. ‘Overfishing’, ‘invasive species’, ‘unregulated’ extraction of oils and minerals from the ocean floor, all assume that (some) humans are doing something in excess of an ideal state, a balance - a universal human preoccupation according to philosopher and psychoanalyst Adam Phillips[1]. Undergirding individual and societal desire to understand spatial-temporal ideas around balance and excess, are discourses on ethical practices of fishing, ‘good science’ and desirable relations with nature. But, how do we come to appreciate what might be ‘excessive’ (and unsolicited) in maritime practices, or conversely, how can we reflexively re-center attention to a different set of ‘facts’ and fact generating processes? To extend the question, how may we arrive at integrative and plural ways of understanding processes of norming (and normalization), particularly with regard to epistemes seen to be ‘correct’– from ‘right’ sets of practices relating to resource extraction, to desired forms of sociality and conviviality that crosscut epistemological maritime traditions? Moreover, how far do social practices and contexts seen to be embedded in the terrestrial translate into coastal and marine realms (and vice versa), in ways that preempt similarity and difference?
In doing so, we draw inspiration from the reflexive turn witnessed across multiple disciplines within the social sciences and the environmental humanities. Within the marine sciences, scientists are also turning a critical lens on their own historical legacies, norms and values, reminiscent of Mertonian notions of science’s self-corrective communal nature, albeit with much controversy and disagreement. This panel attempts to bring a microcosm of scholarship marked by reflexivity, criticality and self-examination from multiple epistemological traditions. We offer ourselves a chance to see how the maritime present (and future) might be articulated and imagined with more circumspect and contingent knowledge claims.


Fish are not mammals: the failure of transposing our terrestrial insight to the marine environment
Jeppe Kolding & Paul van Zwieten

This paper will focus on how our understanding – and therefore management interventions – of the aquatic ecosystems are (mis)informed by our terrestrial experiences, and why these fail when they are transferred into an ecosystem with completely different, structure, rules and processes. For example, fish are feeding like lions (carnivores), but breeding like plants (millions of offspring), and such creatures are unknown in our terrestrial world, which has formed our perception of Nature. Our management interventions and fisheries regulations are therefore based on wrong assumptions extrapolated from the terrestrial environment. This is causing deep structural impact on the marine ecosystems, and is having evolutionary consequences on the exploited fish stocks.


Ideals and practice in statistical data collection for stock assessment in India: Where’s the catch?
Aarthi Sridhar

The set of scientific practices and concepts known as ‘stock assessment’, the pumping heart of the discipline of fisheries science is undertaken as institutionalized state science across developed and developing nations, temperate and tropical. Drawing from a science studies influenced history of fisheries science in India, this paper traces how marine fish stock assessment practices were institutionalised in the country and how despite claims to objectivity and universality, in practice it is subjective, local, contingent and political. The paper trace the precarious nature of statistical data collection, and how meaning, especially in relation to expertise, standards and moral character is generated around practices of stock assessment by epistemic communities (scientific and technical) within a fisheries science organisation in India. The paper attempts to understand the relation between the social life of stock assessment practices, perceptions of good science and resistances to paradigm shifts.


'Islands of Invasion': Non-native and Nuisance Species, and the Making of Charismatic Ecosystems in the Dutch Antilles
Rapti Siriwardane-Zoysa

The paper traces narratives of arrival and circulation featuring the first globally invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea across the eastern Caribbean Sea. Diversely framed through its potentialities of being seen as a ‘positive’ invasive, the presentation critically reflects on how diverse forms of knowledge and knowledge hierarchies inherent within colonial traditions of natural history, local fishing practices, conservation and fisheries ecology, together with neoliberal sensibilities on tourism and real estate development have rendered great ambivalence to its arrival and management. Drawing on the island of Bonaire - a Dutch Overseas Territory - the paper revisits timeworn ecological and lay concepts such as ‘native’, ‘nuisance’ and ‘exotic’ species, in illustrating how the unfamiliar and the unsolicited is reconfigured often in conflicting ways, particularly in the light of varying ideals around utopic and dystopic land/seascapes. Drawing inspiration from multispecies ethnography and island studies, the paper offers a conceptual typology for the study of ‘non-charismatic’ species (such as a non-native seagrass), which in turn aims at redressing an understudied aspect in the scholarship of more-than-human geographies and biosocial relations.


On ‘Epistemic (In-)equalities’ and the Marine Sciences 
Anna-Katharina Hornidge, Stefan Partelow & Kerstin Knopf

The past years have witnessed an immense increase in policy-level interest in the ocean as climate regulator, biodiversity hub and resource provider. The United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda, and especially Goal 14 ‘Life below Water’ celebrated at the UN Ocean Conference in New York in 2017 just act as one example amongst many underlining this discovery of the ocean by policy- makers and civil society groups. Facilitated by this invigorated public interest in the ocean, the marine sciences, as sector infrastructurally equipped and mandated for mapping and analysing the ocean, for knowing its ecosystems and resources, thus increasingly find themselves in the role of knowledge brokers and translators between the ocean, as last (epistemic or resource) frontier, and society. At the same time little scholarly work exists on the unique characteristics, internal logics, negotiation dynamics, and peculiarities of marine and coastal resource related scientific knowledge systems. If, in Francis Bacon’s words knowledge indeed is power, being a knowledge holder comes with substantial responsibilities regarding access and benefit sharing.
This paper reflects on the role of marine sciences in ‘knowing the ocean’ by exploring the defining logics of differentiation within and between marine and coastal knowledge systems. It draws on two sets of empirical data: (a) qualitative ethnographic field research on the social organisation of international and interdisciplinary research teams on a German research vessel before the coasts of Mauretania and Senegal, as well as (b) a social network analysis of authorship collaborations in 753 peer-reviewed publications in the field of tropical marine sciences. Based on the dialogical analysis of these, and further inspired by conceptual discussions on epistemic justice/epistemic oppression, the authors propose the concept of ‘epistem


Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A1.04 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Small-scale fishing communities in the front lines of climate risk: learning from extreme weather events. (2)
Chaired by: Monnereau, I., Kalikoski, D., Charles, A. & Turner, R.

Small-scale fishing communities in the front lines of climate risk: learning from extreme weather events in Asia and the Caribbean
Iris Monnereau, Daniela Kalikoski, Anthony Charles, Rachel Turner
ICSF/FAO/CCRN

 
This session takes as a point of departure that small-scale fishing communities are the first to experience the consequences of changing storm patterns and intensities, which are associated with climate change. In the past year, South Asia has undergone two catastrophic cyclones: Cyclone Ockhi, that caused a massive loss of fisher lives and major damage along the south-west coast of India, and Cyclone Gaja that has just hit the south-east coast of the same country, with devastating results. The Caribbean too is affected badly by annual hurricanes with Hurricane Maria and Irma causing massive destruction of the fisheries sector in, respectively, Dominica and Antigua and Barbuda. From 4 March 2019 onwards, the landfall of Cyclone Idai and subsequent widespread flooding led to significant damage to livelihoods, infrastructures and assets in Mozambique, with extensive damage to fisher folks’ assets.

Natural disasters are often followed by a poorly planned fisheries emergency response leading to another disaster: over capitalisation, increased competition for resources and unfavourable distribution of resources. There is also often a lack of incorporation of the fisheries sector into damage and loss assessments resulting in limited access to relief funds after disaster for the region.

Recent discussion of the impacts of hurricanes on the fisheries sector in the Caribbean (2018 Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute Conference) concluded that more work needs to be done to prevent and mitigate impacts such as : the ICT training of fisherfolk to enhance early warning, safety-at-sea training, and Post-Disaster Damage and Needs assessment training for fisheries officers and DRM personal. These actions are needed because the fisheries sector is often considered too complex and is data deficient and is therefore overlooked by humanitarian actors in post-disaster assessments which leads to lack of funds for rehabilitation in comparison to other sectors. Effective adaptation support is also limited by knowledge gaps relating to the needs and choices of fishers, fishing households and wider communities, and the potential opportunities for insurance to support fisherfolk.

Fishers in both South Asia and the Caribbean and Africa are generally used to living with storms and their impacts, as these are part of regular climatic patterns. But with the process of climate change, storm risks are starting to change, with important implications for disaster preparedness and response. Not only are knowledge systems (local and scientific) struggling to deal with new meteorological patterns and generate timely alerts, higher intensity storms also challenge the performance of communication and warning systems, evacuation facilities, and modes of disaster response.

Fishing is one of the most risky professions on the planet (ILO ref.), and it is clear that fishing communities, which are by necessity located along the shoreline, generally suffer first risk of being affected by heavy winds, rain and water surges. It is for this reason that the Voluntary Guidelines on Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries devote a chapter to disaster risks and climate change, enjoining governments and other societal parties to pay special attention to disaster preparedness and emergency response. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 1, 2, SDG 13 and SDG 14) too are relevant in this regard.

This session takes the experiences of South Asia and the Caribbean as starting point for a larger debate on fishers and climate resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations. The session will include two panels presenting both scientific papers and recent project activities, plus a round table discussion. The session is associated with current work (FAO/SMU etc.) on the nexus between poverty and climate change, with the work of the Community Conservation Research Network on coastal communities’ role in environmental stewardship and sustainable livelihoods, and with ICSF’s focus on impacts and responses to climate change. It hopes to contribute to new research endeavors and the international policy debate.

Panel 2: Adaptation of small-scale fisheries to storm and extreme weather events:

Resilience and adaptation in an era of increasing climate risks and extreme events
Florence Poulain

Considering early warning systems for hazards in small-scale fisheries
Patrick McConney


Climate adaptation and extreme weather in Dominica’s fishing communities 
Rachel Turner & Jullan Defoe

Investigating the role of the weather in fishers’ decision making: a case study from Newlyn, England
Nigel Sainsburry

Mini-round table 2


Speakers
FP

Florence Poulain

Fisheries and Aquaculture Officer, FAO
Social scientist at FAO Fisheries and Aqualculture Department, policy branch. Working on resilience, climate change and variability, adaptation


Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

The social-cultural pillar: engaging communities in fisheries management.
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment
Chaired by: Wingren, I. & Autzen, M.H.

The social-cultural pillar: engaging communities in fisheries management
Ida Wingren & Mathilde Højrup Autzen

For decades, social scientists have studied the cultural and social aspects of coastal fishing communities and how these are essential for the continuation of locally-based, small-scale fisheries (and vice versa). In recent regulatory documents, socio-cultural sustainability is often linked to small-scale fisheries, but in practice fisheries management is generally dominated by market-based principles and technocratic solutions that often work to the detriment of small-scale fisheries and local fishing communities. If regulatory frameworks are to take seriously the social and cultural aspects that they ostensibly want to encourage, they need to be changed. As social and cultural aspects can rarely be quantified and generalised, they call for flexible regulations that operate on a local and regional level. As such regulations are a rarity, coastal communities have had to develop various survival strategies and initiatives focused on everything from management of resources to market- and product development. In this panel, we make space for both case-studies that display alternative local solutions incorporating social and cultural aspects of sustainability - and more general empirical and/or theoretical discussions of the challenges relating to the need of contextual solutions when aiming to integrate social-cultural sustainability. Panel contributors and attendees are invited to think about to what degree different local initiatives succeed in creating long-term sustainable solutions and why? What do we know about the challenges facing managers in integrating social sustainability and what research is needed to inform such a move?

Panel contributors and proposed paper titles:

"Still missing? Communities in fisheries management"
Svein Jentoft

“Fishing for solutions: how can community economies theory and practices contribute to sustainable fishing?”
Milena Schreiber

“When economic growth does not deliver: fishing community-based experiments for rural development in Sweden”
Sebastian Linke

"Harmonization at the costs of context-orientation- framing and scaling the crisis in Swedish Baltic Sea fisheries”
Ida Wingren

"Reorienting social sustainability in eco-labelling to an industrial North small-scale fishing context”
Mathilde Højrup Autzen

Discussants:

Kevin St. Martin
Alyne Delaney




Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

15:00

Theorising the implementation of marine policies and plans. (2)
*panel description and paper abstracts in attachment
Chaired by: Sander, G.

Theorising the implementation of marine policies and plans (2)
Gunnar Sander & Tim Stojanovic

Marine policies have been critiqued as ineffective for a number of reasons. States and other actors may be slow in taking up new approaches, and when they do, the results do not always live up to the expectations. Planning has an important role in many marine policies, such as integrated ocean management, ecosystem-based management, marine spatial planning and marine protected areas. Planning and subsequent decision-making can formulate policy-on-paper. However, decisions must be followed by efficient and effective implementation afterwards in order to deliver what was expected. For this session, we have invited papers from a broad range of disciplines to discuss how the results of implementing marine policies can be studied. Implementation theory is one tradition, which has so far not been used much in marine studies. Governance theories of various kinds and regime theory tend to focus on the behaviour of key actors, ideas and institutional arrangements. Other approaches may also have been applied. The session will explore the strengths and weaknesses of the different theoretical approaches. We have included papers which have empirically explored the implementation of marine policies and planning in different contexts, to present the achievements of the implementation processes studied and reflect on the theoretical underpinning of their work. We invite debate about what insights empirically based theory development can generate and what that has to offer for practice.

Competing theoretical frameworks for the evaluation of marine planning: reviewing the implementation of UK marine spatial plans
Tim Stojanovic

Marine Spatial Planning in the UK. A Review of Progress and an Assessment of the Effectiveness of Marine Plan Policy in Decision-Making
Anne-Michelle Slater & Jim Claydon

Conceptualising the implementation of marine spatial planning in the United Kingdom as a boundary object problem. 
Jane Clarke, Wesley Flannery & Geraint Ellis

Discussant: 
Harad Saetren




Thursday June 27, 2019 15:00 - 16:30
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

19:00

Conference Dinner (Dominicus Church)
Thursday June 27, 2019 19:00 - 22:30
Spuistraat 12, 1012TS Amsterdam Dominicus Church
 
Friday, June 28
 

08:30

Free Diving Session: Getting social sciences on board the UN decade on Ocean Science for Sustainable Development
Summary: UN General Assembly has declared the decade of Ocean Science 
for Sustainable Development for 2021-2030. Under the coordination of the 
Integovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO a series of regional 
workshops are organized to feed the planning of the decade. Let's plan 
together to ensure social sciences get on board the planning of the decade

Denis, Ratana and Lena


Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:30

Free Diving Session: How to get social science in IEA
Are you a member of WGSOCIAL, are you interested what it is, are you working on developing social indicators, are you critical on developing social indicators, or curious altogether – then please join us in one of the free diving sessions organised by Amber Himes Cornell, Debbi Pedreschi and Marloes Kraan. In this session we would like to discuss our first ideas on developing social indicators in our case in the Irish seas. Who are we? We are members of WGSOCIAL, a new working group erected in ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas) in 2018, following what has been named the Strategic Initiative on the Human Dimension, which aims to develop strategies to support the integration of social and economic science into ICES work.The Working Group on Social Indicators (WGSOCIAL) focuses on improving the integration of social sciences in ICES Ecosystem Overviews and integrated ecosystem assessments through the development of culturally relevant social indicators.

Speakers
avatar for Marloes Kraan

Marloes Kraan

Researcher, Wageningen University & Research
MAREApplied marine social scienceFisheries behaviour, food security, cultural heritageInterdisciplinarity


Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:30

Free Diving Session: Identifying priority activities for the new IUCN People and the Oceans Specialist Group
Overview: This free dive session will first introduce a new People and the Oceans Specialist Group that was recently created within the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. We will then seek your ideas and feedback for partners and priority activities that the People and Oceans Specialist Group might pursue in the coming years to help integrate the voices, visions, rights, and livelihood needs of coastal peoples and island nations into policies and practices related to the conservation and management of the oceans.

Initiator: Nathan Bennett, Chair of the People and Oceans Specialist Group, IUCN

Background:
Indigenous people, coastal communities, small-scale fishers and island nations are intimately connected to, depend on and claim resources and territories in much of the world’s oceans and coastal environment. The central objective of the newly created People and the Ocean SG is to promote the need to understand and integrate the voices, visions, rights, and livelihood needs of coastal peoples and island nations into policies and practices related to the conservation and management of the oceans. The group brings a marine focus to the work of the Commission on Ecological, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). In particular, this marine-focused specialist group cuts across the Themes of CEESP, such as the Governance, Equity and Rights, Human Well-being and Livelihoods, Gender, Indigenous People’s, and Business, Best Practice and Accountability Thematic Groups. The work of the People and the Oceans Specialist Group also connects to the various marine programs situated within the IUCN, including the Marine and Polar Program and the Marine Theme of the World Commission on Protected area, and liaises with IUCN member organizations that are engaged in ocean conservation, management and development issues.

Link: https://www.iucn.org/commissions/commission-environmental-economic-and-social-policy/our-work/people-and-ocean

Speakers
avatar for Nathan Bennett

Nathan Bennett

Research Associate, University of British Columbia


Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:30

Free Diving Session: Implementation of EU’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Implementation of EU’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive
The intention with this invitation is to assemble people who have an interest in studying the implementation of EU’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). I am interested in taking stock of what has been done so far and discuss further directions for research. 
 
Background
EU’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is an interesting attempt to put ecosystem-based management into practice. It has a clear focus on arriving at a programme of measures, intended to lead to good ecological status in European seas. Such a policy focus is not as clear in other frameworks of ecosystem-based management, which are more concerned with the assessment and understanding of the ecosystem. A first policy cycle has recently been completed for MSFD. The European coastal states have submitted their programmes of measures to the European Commission for review. These measures will now need to be implemented. In parallel, a second policy cycle is supposed to start. This is a good opportunity for assessing how the MSFD has been implemented, and what the outputs and outcomes will be when measures are being put into practice. 
 
There is also an international relevance of this topic, beyond the EU. There are several warning signs for the progress of EBM. Some of the states that were seen as frontrunners when EBM was enthusiastically promoted, have either abandoned the approach or not managed to put it into practice (Australia, Canada, USA). The Biodiversity Convention, which also pioneered promoting EBM in the 1990s, also seem to pay little attention to the concept anymore. Thus, it would be of interest to study what has been achieved through the European approach, where a European Directive is driving a parallel process in different coastal states and maritime regions.

Speakers

Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A1.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:30

Free Diving Session: Re-envisioning conference formats: brainstorming opportunities for MARE 2021 and beyond.
In this panel we invite participants to brainstorm about opportunities and constraints of moving beyond mainstream conference formats and traditions. We will at least discuss two themes.

1) Conference 2.0: Incorporating modern priorities of climate change mitigation and inclusivity. Can conferences go online to allow remote attendance which may reduce carbon footprints of academics and promote inclusivity. This would likely change the entire economic dynamic of conferences and may provide an opportunity to make scholarships more widely available. But how could that exactly work?

2) Conference session formats: Academic conferences tend to have a similar format the world over: plenary keynotes are combined with parallel sessions where scholars present their papers in 8-15 minutes, followed usually with a few questions or discussion. We look forward to a discussion on whether this typical conference set-up actually provides optimal creative use of the unique occasion of so many people working in a similar field being together. What do we know about successful alternative conference practices, what other formats could providing meaningful synergies and energy during a conference?

Outcomes of our panel will be provided as input/suggestions to the MARE conference committee 2021.

Speakers
avatar for Hannah Bassett

Hannah Bassett

PhD Student, University of Washington, Seattle
Dive fisheries, political ecology of small-scale fisheries, impacts of marine climate change on people, Philippines, California
avatar for C. Julián Idrobo

C. Julián Idrobo

Assistant Professor, Los Andes University


Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:30

Free Diving Session: What viable alternatives are there to the hegemonic blue economy agenda?
This session aims to explore the use of regional and historical analysis to locate and examine socially and culturally-embedded economic relations with the sea from different parts of the world (ocean basins, regions, countries). The aim is to inform the development of alternative visions or models of governance that are able to challenge the blue economy discourse that increasingly aligns the world’s business leaders, conservation organizations, major philanthropists and the marine (natural) science community behind a set of reforms that is set to transform humanity’s relationship with the sea.
Although there are multiple and ill-defined conceptions of ‘blue growth’ and the ‘blue economy’, the clearest and most powerful global discourse stems from three related premises:

i) Opportunities to generate new capital from the land are slowing; the sea represents a frontier to galvanize the next major phase of capitalist growth

ii) Private investment in emergent areas of the ocean economy is limited by weak rights regimes. In order to make substantial capital investments in the ocean; private capital investors will require much stronger bundles of property rights, and are pressurizing states to grant them

iii) Marine spatial planning is a a necessary prerequisite to the delineation of ocean space in ways that can support the allocation of property rights to blue economy investors.

While there is a lot of attention in this blue economy discourse to the need to balance economic growth with environmental conservation – and indeed some blue economy definitions explicitly link growth to maintaining and building ocean ‘ecosystem services’ – equity dimensions are neglected, with the risk that existing ocean users – notably small-scale fishers – will be excluded. The model also risks being a ‘blueprint’ that overrides existing historically, culturally and geographically-constructed relationships with the sea. We want to surface these relationships and evaluate their potential against that of the acultural, ahistorical and depoliticized ‘blue economy’.

The discussions in this session will help us to formulate arguments that will be included in a ‘blue paper’ commissioned by the High Level Panel of Experts on the Future Ocean Economy – an initiative of 14 states, led by the Governments of Norway and Palau. (www.oceanpartnership.org). The paper’s recommendations will be presented in plenary at the 2020 UN World Ocean Summit in Lisbon.
Your assistance will be acknowledged in the paper. Join us for an opportunity to have a direct influence on future ocean policy. We are looking for representation from all over the world!


Eddie Allison

Speakers
EA

Eddie Allison

Professor, University of Washington
Fish and human nutrition, blue economy controversies, climate change, maritime and coastal livelihoods


Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:30

Free Diving Session: “Blue Degrowth: Missile Word or Research Agenda for the Marine Social & Sustainability Sciences?”
Talks with fellow conference assistants, particularly young researchers, reveal an increasing interest in the concept of “blue degrowth” as a radical sustainability counter-paradigm to the Blue Economy / Blue Growth discourses. Can the concept go beyond its character of slogan or ‘missile word’ and become a research stream for marine social and environmental scientists? I would like to use the free diving session as a meeting ground for those interested in radical sustainability approaches such as degrowth, buen vivir, ecological sawaraj, etc. as systemic alternatives to capitalist-driven global change. It would be a great opportunity for sharing knowledge, interests and generate a breeding ground for research ideas, projects and potential collaborations.


Friday June 28, 2019 08:30 - 10:00
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

08:31

Free Diving Session
Friday June 28, 2019 08:31 - 10:00
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:00

Short Break (with coffee/tea)
Friday June 28, 2019 10:00 - 10:15
TBA Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Brainstorming a social scientific research agenda for the Blue Economy
Chaired by: Voyer, M. & Van Leeuwen, J.

Brainstorming a social scientific research agenda for the Blue Economy
Dr Michelle Voyer & Judith van Leeuwen
University of Wollongong & Wageningen University


The Blue Economy, sometimes also called ‘Blue Growth’, is a contested, yet increasingly influential concept which is gaining considerable traction in ocean based sustainable development narratives. The concept has been championed by institutions around the world as coastal states explore the economic opportunities that exist within and beyond their ocean jurisdictions. Yet there is no common agreement of what the terms ‘Blue Economy’ and ‘Blue Growth’ mean either in principle or in practice, with evidence to date pointing to the term being co-opted by many different actors according to often competing agendas and objectives. This gives rise to a range of challenges which social scientists will play a crucial role in identifying, critiquing and, where possible, resolving. This innovative panel will aim to use a collaborative, brainstorming approach to articulating the challenges and opportunities that a Blue Economy provides, and the key social science questions that will need to be addressed as the concept evolves. The session will consist of a diverse panel of social scientists working on various dimensions of the Blue Economy, each speaking to a different Blue Economy theme. The panel will also include audience participation and discussion and aims to identify a prioritized agenda for future Blue Economy research.




Speakers
avatar for Kathryn Barclay

Kathryn Barclay

Professor, University of Technology Sydney
MS

Michelle Scobie

Michelle Scobie, PhD, LLB, LEC, is a lecturer and researcher at the Institute of International Relations at The University of the West Indies (UWI), St. Augustine and Co-Editor of the Caribbean Journal of International Relations and Diplomacy. She has practiced as an attorney at... Read More →


Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A2.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Containing the trawl industry: global experiences compared
Chaired by: Bavinck, J.M.

Global experiences in managing trawl fisheries – Lessons for sustainable fisheries management
Tara Lawrence , Martin van der Knaap & Maarten Bavinck

Trawl fisheries contribute nearly a quarter of the world’s fish catch, and are considered to be one of the most lucrative industries due to the high values their catches represent. However, the negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts of trawling have long been established, with a variety of institutional regulations that attempt to address issues of overfishing, over-capacity, marine bycatch and discards, and social externalities at international, national, regional and local levels. This paper presents a history of the trawling industry in various parts of the world, and a review of commonly suggested management mechanisms that include ecosystem based management, spatial planning and area based management, fishing gear, capacity and effort management, rights based management, and catch quota systems. It also looks into social and political mobilizations that have occurred against trawling and the way these have influenced first the regulatory environment and eventually the trawl industry itself. Experiences from developed nations like Australia and the US prove to be vastly different from developing or third world countries from South East Asia, Latin America and Africa.

Social conflict over shifting technologies obscure environmental degradation due to trawl fishing - cases from Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra
Divya Karnad & Maarten Bavinck

A global shift in perceptions of policy makers now blames industrial fishing for overexploitation (e.g. FAO, 2015). Evidence exists to suggest that certain types of trawl fishing like bottom-scraping otter and beam trawls are overwhelmingly responsible for marine ecosystem degradation (Flaherty and Karnjanakesorn, 1995; Thrush et al. 2002; Kaiser et al., 2002). Yet, several countries, like India, have chosen bottom trawling as the means to develop their fisheries, and haven’t backed away from this technology even in the face of this scientific evidence of degradation. In India, trawl vessels have become so much a part of the scenery that they are not often part of current debates on fishing policy and transformations to sustainability. Instead fingers are being pointed towards more recent technological interventions such as the use of the purse seine or the ring seine as the source of contention. This paper investigates how the trawl fishery has come to be transformed from a top-down, externally imposed technological intervention that has negative impacts on both ecology and socio-economics, to a traditional, historical form of fishing whose continuity is beyond question. The repercussions of such a transformation have ripple effects on the unity of the fishing community, the types of social and economic behaviour that are considered acceptable, the identities of fisherfolk and their sense of community, as well as on the fish resources themselves. For fishermen to choose to ignore the ecological arguments against trawling, and unite with trawlers against purse or ring seines has very particular and important fallouts.

Containing the trawl industry: global experiences compared
Martin van der Knaap & Maarten Bavinck
FAO & University of Amsterdam


Although trawling was already practiced in the pre-industrial era, it has boomed with the advent of engine power, synthetic twines and refrigeration. Trawling has become a factor of importance, not only in the Global North but in the Global South as well. But its many disadvantages – environmental as well as social – too have emerged, with trawl fishers achieving the reputation of ‘roving bandits’, threatening the livelihoods of coastal fishers and the quality of seabeds and fish stocks alike. Governments and other societal parties have tried to contain the negative effects of the trawling industry in various ways and to various effects. This panel compares various attempts at containment, ranging from total closure to regulation and monitoring. It also enquiries into reasons for the failure of containment efforts and into their implications for future policy.



Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A2.08 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Framing, knowing and dreaming marine restoration.
Chaired and organized by: Carballo Cardenas, E. & Papadopoulou, N.

Framing, Knowing and Dreaming Marine Restoration
Faced with increasing loss of biodiversity and persistent ecosystem degradation, a paradigm shift in global biodiversity policy is ongoing, moving from the traditional ‘preservation paradigm’ or a hands-off stance to conservation, towards more active forms of intervention in nature through ecosystem restoration. Restoration is defined as “the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed.” The goal is to steer the process of recovery towards a desired state of the ecosystem. This definition by the Society of Ecological Restoration is widely accepted and used in the academic literature. However, divergent interpretations exist of what the process of assisting the recovery of a degraded ecosystem means in science and in management. Multiple visions are often articulated of the desired state of the ecosystem to be pursuedbased on different underlying motivations for restoration, ways of knowing and acceptable levels of human intervention in nature. Various framings and discourses of restoration thus structure how actors and coalitions define problems and their approaches to solutions. Moreover, marine ecosystem restoration is confronted with different forms of uncertainty, namely incomplete knowledge, unpredictability, and ambiguity, which must be managed by actors participating in restoration initiatives. This panel highlights the role of knowledge, uncertainty perceptions and the challenges of negotiating a common understanding of marine ecosystem restoration through the presentation of various current and imagined restoration undertakings in European coasts and seas.

The policy implications of framing marine litter in the Netherlands
Judith R. Floor & Ansje J. Löhr

At the moment the problem of plastic litter in rivers, coastal areas and oceans is increasingly getting political attention. On the level of the UN, Europe, national and local the perception that action is required to reduce marine litter is gaining momentum. At the same time, scientists express knowledge uncertainties on the exact amounts and effects of plastic in the environment. In this study, the impact of storylines and uncertainty perceptions on policy decisions and research regarding marine litter within the Netherlands are investigated. We see a shift in the last 10 years from no specific policy for plastic towards an urgency to address the issue in policies. This shift takes place in connection to the European and global attention for the impacts of plastic litter. The Clean Meuse project is used as an example to illustrate the changes in research and policy-making efforts. We analyse the framing of natural scientists, civil society actors and policy makers on the problem, proposed actions and responsibilities for the marine litter issue. By examining the use of metaphors and storylines by different actors, we identify where perceptions on marine litter converge and diverge. Two basic storylines – clean up and prevention – underline most reactions on marine litter. However, the analysis of the Dutch case, shows perceptions are much more diverse. These perceptions are connected to expectations of research and to values of coastal and river areas, ranging from pristine nature to economic.


Implementing EU biodiversity conservation policy targets: the challenges of negotiating a common understanding of ecosystem restoration in European seas
Christopher J Smith, Nadia Papadopoulou, Eira Cárdenas & Jan van Tatenhove

Centuries of human exploitation have altered coastal and marine ecosystems in Europe. Despite the existence of more than 200 pieces of EU legislation supporting marine environmental policy and management, a range of existing and emerging pressures continue to threaten marine biodiversity and ecosystems in the four EU regional seas. Hence, calls for more ambitious policies and actions, including restoration, have become increasingly louder. The EU’s 2020 Biodiversity Strategy’s Target 2 aims to restore at least 15% of degraded ecosystems by 2020. In order to implement restoration policy and be able to assess progress in achieving restoration targets, common understanding of ecosystem restoration and various interrelated key terms is crucial. This presentation assesses how various key concepts related to the EU Biodiversity Strategy’s 15% restoration target are defined and operationalized within this policy, but also in other relevant EU policies with marine ecosystem conservation and restoration provisions. It evaluates whether common and unambiguous definitions and frameworks exist to guide and measure marine ecosystem restoration efforts at the national and regional sea level. The presentation then zooms in into an imagined restoration future for two threatened marine Mediterranean species: red coral (Corallium rubrum) and the fan shell (Pinna nobilis). It explores how restoration experts define the core restoration concepts of ecosystem degradation, recovery, baseline and how they unpack the meaning of the “15%” restoration target for these focal species, under conditions characterized by multiple uncertainties.


FACT-BUILDING THROUGH TECHNO-ECONOMIC MODELS: SEAWEED CULTIVATION AND USE IN THE NETHERLANDS
Sander van den Burg

Offshore production of seaweeds in the North Sea is presented as panacea to many contemporary problems. Seaweed cultivation can increase biodiversity and remove pollution from the sea, offers new job opportunities to the maritime workforce and provide new feedstock for production of food, feed, fuel and biobased materials. It fits various policy agenda’s, including Blue Growth, climate policies, food security and the protein transition. The promise of seaweed contrasts with reality: although various organisation explore the practical feasibility of offshore cultivation, there are as of now only small scale test facilities in the North Sea. Seaweeds are widely used as food thickeners but new market applications only emerge slowly. Claims on feasibility of seaweed cultivation and use are therefore backed-up by studies that use (differing types of) techno-economic models. Techno-economic models are constructed to provide insight into the economic and/or environmental performance of new products and production processes. They connect research and development, engineering, and business. By linking process parameters to financial metrics, such models can help decision makers to better understand the factors that affect the profitability of technology development projects. This paper studies the epistemology of techno-economic models. Drawing upon the concepts from Science, Technology and Society studies, we analyse how techno-economic models for offshore seaweed cultivation are constructed, how they come to formulate conclusions on economic feasibility, and how these results are subsequently used by policy-makers, businesses and others. It is argued that what seems to be a neutral, scientific process of techno-economic modelling is in fact a fact-building process in which competing interest of science, business and other stakeholders mingle. Recognizing the process behind knowledge creation sheds light on the politics behind, and limitations of, such models and opens doors to better techno-economic modelling.



Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A1.06 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Impacts on Livelihoods: the Roles of Governmental Policies, Programmes and Institutions
*For paper abstracts, see attachment.

Chaired by: Des Christy

Livelihood matters – Coastal fisheries communities in Japan
Susanne Auerbach

Becoming Fishers in Cape Horn:  a socio material perspective to livelihoods change in the Southern Seas
Gustavo Blanco-Wells, María Amalia Mellado & Alberto Harambour

We are fishers but we can’t catch fish: the impact of the fisheries regulation on fishery and fishers in North Shields, The UK
Des Christy & Luuk Knippenberg

Making a living in an uncertain environment: Navigating institutions to secure livelihoods on Lake Tanganyika
Deo Namwira, Dr. Danielle Beswick & Professor Fiona Nunan

Build back better for who? Post-disaster development of the coastal villages in the Philippines.
S. Segi

Speakers
GB

Gustavo Blanco-Wells

Associate Professor, Universidad Austral de Chile
avatar for Deo Namwira

Deo Namwira

PhD Candidate, University of Birmingham
Deo Namwira is currently a PhD candidate in the International Development Department at the University of Birmingham working under the supervision of Professor Fiona Nunan and Dr Danielle Beswick on fisheries livelihoods in the context of conflict. His research is concerned with how... Read More →



Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A1.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Local fishery institutions: old and new forms
Chaired by: Linke, S.

Customary institutions and Access to Marine Resources: Examining Entanglement and Legitimacy
Jacqueline Lau, Joshua E Cinner, Michael Fabinyi, Georgina G Gurney & Christina C Hicks

Across much of the Pacific, marine resource use and management continues to be shaped by customary institutions like marine tenure and taboo areas. However, alongside the socio-economic shifts accompanying capitalism and modernity, forms and practices of customary systems are changing. In this context, we aim to contribute to the theoretical treatment of access to marine resources by drawing on ideas from political ecology (legitimacy) and anthropology (entanglement). We hypothesize that where customary and modern forms of resource management co-exist, changes in customary institutions will also change people's ability to and means of benefiting from resources. We ask a) what are the constellations of social, economic, and institutional mechanisms that enable or hinder access to a range of coral reef resources; and b) how are these constellations shifting as different elements of customary institutions gain or lose legitimacy in the process of entanglement with modernity? Through a qualitative mixed-methods case study in a coastal atoll community in Papua New Guinea, we identify key access mechanisms across the several marine value chains. Our study finds the legitimacy of customary systems - and thus their power in shaping access - has eroded unevenly for some resources, and some people within the community (e.g. younger men), and less for others (e.g. women), and that access to different resources are shaped by specific mechanisms, which vary along the value chain. Our findings suggest that attention to entanglement and legitimacy can help capture the dynamic and relational aspects of power that shape how people navigate access to resources in a changing world. We contend that viewing power as relational illuminates how customary institutions lose or gain legitimacy as they become entangled with modernity.


A Burial at Sea?: Cooperatives as the Potential Gravediggers of Fisher Capitalism
Jonah Olsen

In this paper, it is argued that fisher cooperatives are viable and that they can have benefits for fisher wellbeing, but only if they address two central issues: the relations of production (i.e. the fundamentally exploitative nature of capitalist production) and governance. It will engage with the debates around the viability of cooperatives and their potential to transform the mode of production. Cases are then presented of fisher cooperation from around the world to demonstrate the potential for such enterprises to succeed on a social level. This will be followed by an analysis of the specific class dynamics of fisheries, highlighting the shortcomings of many of these cooperative examples in not solving the class conflict of capitalist labour relations in fisheries. In line with “workers’ self-directed enterprises” (WSDEs), the importance of such cooperatives being owned and directed by the workers themselves is emphasized. Furthermore, through Mexican and Japanese case studies, it is demonstrated that even in the most developed and non-capitalist fisher cooperatives, problems arise when the governance of these cooperatives is introduced and administered by a capitalist state. This paper analyzes this problem through the lens of Interactive Governance and proposes an alternative structural model rooted in the expansion and integration of WSDEs across sectors. This restructuring would realign both the class relations, ensuring that labour is fully compensated for all it creates, and governance, meaning that decisions would be made democratically by those involved in production. Looking to the Mondragón cooperative network, it is demonstrated that not only can large, cross-sectoral WSDEs like Mondragón succeed but that they also hold the potential to transform capitalism and greatly benefit fisheries cooperatives around the world


Fisheries cooperatives as a platform to address multi-stakeholder issues in South Sri Lanka: incorporating SSF Voluntary Guidelines into Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) process
K. H. K. L. Piyasiri, O. Amarasinghe & N. De Silva

Coastal resources are used by multi-stakeholders with diverse interests, whose actions often give rise to conflicts, showing the need for integrated coastal management where resource use decisions are made with the participation of all. While all relevant state actors operate along the coastal belt, there hardly exists any coordination among them, revealing the absence of integrated efforts in coastal resource management. The present study was undertaken in this context, aiming at finding out the potential lead role, a community based organisation could play in initiating an integrated coastal management platform. Since the recently developed SSF Guidelines have important implications for such a platform, the study examined the extent to which fisheries cooperatives qualify for such a task. Rekawa of Southern Sri Lanka was selected for the study. The methodology involved Focus Group Discussions with representatives of all coastal resource users. Results revealed that, conflicts among stakeholders were pervasive but remained latent. They have been resolved mainly through private negotiations and state intervention has been minimal. Among the three community organisations in operation, marine fisheries cooperative ranked first in respect of adherence to concerns highlighted in SSF guidelines but ranked low in managing resources. Holistic and coordinated approach to management with the inclusion of all relevance parties and improving the socio-economic conditions, were accredited as most pertinent SSF guidelines towards conflict resolution. Moreover, the study showed that Fisheries cooperatives could play a leader role in the process of integrated coastal zone management, providing a formidable platform to address multi-stakeholder issues.


Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A2.09 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Marine spatial planning (2)
Chaired by: Ramirez-Monsalve, P.

Mechanisms of power in Marine Spatial Planning processes
Paulina Ramírez-Monsalve & Jan P.M. van Tatenhove

In the EU setting, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is portrayed as providing a framework for arbitrating between competing human activities and managing their impact on the marine environment. However, MSP cannot be considered a neutral or objective instrument to decide about conflicting claims between different maritime sectors and activities. MSP is a complicated process –far from neutral, and the power struggles between stakeholders and between stakeholders and planning authorities need to be explicitly addressed before marine space use can be effectively and justly planned. Having as starting point a desk study of the relevant literature, this paper aims to elaborate on a typology of power which gives insight in the mechanisms of power used by stakeholders and planning authorities in marine spatial planning arrangements. Having an awareness and an understanding of the dynamics of power in marine planning processes could contribute to an understanding of democratic decision-making processes and the distribution of benefits (equity) derived from marine resources. MSP should indeed provide opportunities for the “weak” stakeholders, instead of providing opportunities for the already powerful stakeholders to secure their interests.


Use of participant involvement tools and methods in MSP – experiences from the Baltic Sea Region
Søren Qvist Eliasen, Andrea Morf, Lise Schrøder, Hanna Luhtala & Kira Gee.

In Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) processes, stakeholder involvement is increasingly seen as important for various reasons. The EU even considers stakeholders being at the heart of MSP. Stakeholders contribute with their specific knowledge and needs and give input for prioritising and identification of future needs. Stakeholder involvement also legitimises planning processes and decisions made and is thereby a part of good governance and social sustainability. Stakeholder involvement is though a delicate matter; why involve stakeholders and when – e.g. at which stages at the planning process? In line with the categorisation in the ladder of participation, we can then ask what type of involvement for which purpose, who to involve and finally how to do the involvement in practice. Planning processes vary from local to cross-border, consequently, the scope and breadth of stakeholder involvement varies considerably. This article will evaluate experiences of stakeholder involvement from ongoing MSP processes in several Baltic Sea Countries, particularly in the PanBalticScope and the BONUS BASMATI projects. The empirical basis is surveys among national civil servants responsible for the MSP processes and stakeholder involvement, individual follow up interviews and observation from stakeholder events. This provides a basis for critical overview of when stakeholders have been involved in the planning processes, at which stages and with which purpose, referring to an analytic framework of the ladder of MSP participation. The data further provides information about specific tools and methods used in the processes and an early evaluation of these. A specific focus is on the use, acceptance and limitations (technical, user-acceptance, legal restrictions etc.) of Spatial Decision Support Tools. As such the article provides an overview of practical experiences with stakeholder involvement in the Baltic Sea Region and experiences of which tools and methods worked well and what were experienced obstacles in planning processes.

 Actor Engagement and Exploring Stakeholders Perspectives in Transnational Marine Spatial Planning
Malena Ripken, Xander Keijser, Thomas Klenke & Igor Mayer

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has become increasingly important in recent years and, as such, has attained significant interest among the international community. MSP and related marine policy and governance have been characterized by a diversity of approaches and a lack of transnational cooperation. Nevertheless, MSP can and should be considered a societal process to balance conflicting interests of maritime stakeholders and the marine environment. The identification of mismatches and synergies, with the goal of creating a coherent and coordinated process at European Sea basins, is therefore essential. Various normative frameworks on EU, as well as national and regional levels have characterized the North Sea for many years. The ‘Q Methodology’ combines quantitative and qualitative research characteristics, exploring and identifying ‘viewpoints’ of actors. This study used the ‘Q Methodology’ approach to elicit qualitative subjective data from respondents about their values as means of producing statistically valid results. Additionally, the ‘Living Q’ method has been developed as a dialogue approach to systematically expand actors’ awareness in regards to their viewpoints in an interactive, communicative and playful environment. Furthermore, it has been developed as an advancement of the ‘Q Methodology’. With the participation and cooperation of international expert’s groups from European sea basins, we were able to successfully implement and observe the pillars of the ‘Living Q’ method in action. Results from these ‘Living Q’ exercises demonstrate that this method is capable of fostering communication and interaction among participating actors, while at the same time potentially generating added value to planning processes by stakeholder/actor interaction in a collaborative setting.


Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A2.07 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Narrating the Ocean. Public Discourses and Marine Governance
Chaired by: Samantha Williams

What marine environment attributes are most important to coastal residents and how do these influence attitudes toward wave and tidal energy? A photo-elicitation study on the Bristol Channel, UK.
Andrew Edwards-Jones, Caroline Hattam, Nicola Beaumont
(Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom)

The UK Government is committed to a target of 15% of electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2020. DEFRA’s 25-year environment plan also places a commitment on protecting the UK’s natural capital. To honour these commitments, the energy system needs to be decarbonised, albeit in a way that safeguards natural capital and provides acceptable trade-offs to the public. The marine environment is essential to achieving the UK’s renewable energy targets, with wave and tidal devices among the potential mechanisms for harvesting marine energy. While research has focused on engineering challenges, little is known about the social and cultural impacts of these devices and their public acceptability. This research had three main aims: to identify the cultural importance of the coast, to assess the trade-offs between cultural ecosystem services and a decarbonised energy system, and to reveal perceptions of wave and tidal energy. Three case study sites along the Bristol Channel were selected (Weston-super-Mare, Minehead, and Barnstaple), this area having great potential for wave and tidal energy while also holding environmental and cultural significance, attracting several million visitors annually and housing at least 250,000 people. A mixed-method approach was adopted, integrating photo elicitation and a questionnaire survey involving residents of the study locations. Data from interviews, participant photographs, and extracted survey data were analysed thematically, revealing attachment to place, aesthetic attributes, natural history and recreational use as being of particular importance, and highlighting a generally positive perception of wave and tidal energy development albeit with some clear ideas of acceptable trade-offs and concerns regarding impact on wildlife and the coastal environment. By drawing on data through methodological triangulation, greater depth is revealed about perceptions on what is important for individuals living in particular localities, and how these priority concerns underpin their attitudes toward wave and tidal energy.


Narratives around Livelihood Diversification among Coastal Communities in Southeast Asia: A Qualitative Evidence Synthesis
Timur Jack-Kadioglu, Karyn Morrissey, Felicity Thomas & Ruth Garside

Coastal areas in lower and middle-income countries are spaces in constant flux, with varied – and often competing – uses, contributing to growing pressure on increasingly fragile ecosystems. For the communities that inhabit these spaces, marine resources play a crucial role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to human well-being. Narratives about livelihoods and the human dimensions of marine resource use continue to be (re)constructed, within coastal communities, between broader coastal stakeholders, and by researchers and practitioners. The primary aim of this study – part of a broader empirical PhD study on livelihood-wellbeing linkages in coastal communities in Palawan, Philippines – is to examine and unpick perspectives and experiences of livelihoods from different members of coastal communities in Southeast Asia, and how values are shaped across gender, age, class, and ethnicity. To achieve this aim, the study uses a qualitative evidence synthesis – following a thematic synthesis approach – that extracts, analyses, and synthesises past bodies of qualitative literature to create novel interpretations that explore narratives around livelihoods diversification. The focus on qualitative evidence recognises the key role that qualitative research can play in understanding the nuances of complex socio-ecological processes in coastal and marine environments, in particular when examining power dynamics and marginalised groups. By exploring narratives in research about livelihoods among coastal communities in Southeast Asia, this study seeks to contribute to more equitable research and practice in the future by highlighting whose values are represented in dominant narratives. Early findings indicate the risks of focusing on livelihoods from an income-generating perspective, while ignoring the ways in which they (re)shape and (re)construct individual and collective identities. Further, narratives around livelihood diversification appear to be being shaped by and benefiting powerful actors within and outside communities, contributing to feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness among marginalised community members.


Discovering and knowing the paradise: historical overview of the scientific endeavor in Galapagos Islands
Maria Jose Barragan-Paladines

The Galapagos Islands are often imagined as “the paradise” and as “the natural laboratory for evolution”. These powerful metaphors have shaped the Galapagos territory and the way space, reality and truth is understood, specially through scientific practices, since Charles Darwin published his famous The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, in 1859. This influential notion became the foundation of the Evolutionary Biology and determined the scientific endeavor, about the islands and their natural systems, that has been conducted in the Archipelago in the last 160 years.
It is claimed that the Galapagos Islands were ‘discovered’ by Fray T. de Berlanga in 1535, yet, evidence proves that pre-Hispanic cultures were present in the islands before that time. In fact, the ‘discovery’ and ‘exploration’ of the islands since then, have followed a unified format of characterization, labeling, cataloging and mapping of the discoveries made by scientific practices. This paper is descriptive in nature and follows a narrative-style format. It tells the story of the scientific practices, conducted by the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (CDF), in Galapagos, since its creation in 1959. Being the first and most important scientific body in Galapagos, CDF has played a significant role in the scientific endeavor carried on. I posit that during these decades, varied paradigmatic changes have been experienced, at varied scales, within the research agenda, research objects, and research priorities in the Galapagos context. From a very purist scientific practices, we have shifted and currently conduct more comprehensive research, that recognize the role humans have played (and still do) in the co-existence and co-evolution of the social and natural systems, specially within the marine dimension. This science approach highlights the necessity to look at issues from varied disciplinary traditions.



Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A1.05 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

10:15

Rethinking MPA governance
Chaired by: Sowman, M.

Negotiating property rights in coastal Marine Protected Areas (MPAs):  Canada’s Basin Head MPA case study
Mario Levesque

The Gulf of St. Lawrence is an inland sea on Canada’s Atlantic coast that is enclosed by an ensemble of Canadian federal-provincial jurisdictions that govern an array of semi-autonomous policy sub-sectors. This paper explores the intersection of two subsectors, marine conservation and coastal development. At the heart of each are the establishment of property rights which are often touted as a solution to a resource’s management and protection. These rights are important given they dictate the rights of access, exclusion and management, among others, which vary depending on one’s legal position (e.g., owner, authorized user). Yet these rights are increasingly challenged in cases of coastal Marine Protected Areas (MPA) where their fate may ultimately hinge on terrestrial practices such as agriculture which itself is based on its own set of property rights. Such is the case in the Basin Head Marine Protected Area that borders the province of Prince Edward Island the east coast of Canada where one finds a unique type of Irish Moss that is increasingly under threat by land-based activities such as intensive potato farming. This paper explores the competing sets of terrestrial and marine property rights involved and questions their evolution, negotiation and political spaces for contestation by civil society actors.


“What does the future hold?” Stakeholders’ views of development and its putative effects on sustainability in a Mozambican marine reserve
Serena Lucrezi, Carlo Cerrano & Diana Rocha

Marine reserves can be hotspots for sustainable development, thanks to management strategies, actions and regulatory mechanisms aimed to protect ecosystems and promote sustainable livelihoods. The Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve (PPMR) in southern Mozambique is a vast reserve holding enormous conservation and sustainable development potential, through capacity building and the promotion of marine tourism. The reserve, awaiting nomination for UNESCO World Heritage listing, is set to undergo substantial transformative tourism development aligned with conservation goals, to become a prime ecotourism destination. However, the putative consequences of urban development and hard engineering have been concerning stakeholders in the reserve for years. This is particularly true for stakeholders based at the rural village of Ponta do Ouro, which is where most of the tourism-related economy originates from. This paper provides a chronological analysis of stakeholders’ views of development and its putative effects on the economic, social and environmental future of the PPMR, with Ponta do Ouro as the main case study. Using a qualitative research approach, the paper focusses on two forms of data collection, namely retrospective from previous studies in the reserve, and new from the case study. The stakeholders targeted include various members of the local community. Stakeholders’ discussions revolve around two forms of development, namely the construction of a highway connecting the capital of Mozambique with Ponta do Ouro, which was completed in 2018, and the construction of a deep sea port in the reserve, which has been proposed over several decades. The findings of the research are used to highlight the importance of bottom-up approaches in marine and coastal governance, the problems stemming from top-down initiatives which do not take into account local contexts from various angles, and the importance of sustainable development planning for the future of conservation and livelihoods in marine reserves.


Communities and Coasts: Contrasting Perceptions Surrounding the Rezoning of Africa's Oldest MPA
Ella-Kari Muhl

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) can be crucial for sustainable marine governance. However, they are only effective if designed to consider how people interact with the coasts and seas designated for protection. In South Africa, MPAs created prior to 1994 under the oppressive Apartheid regime largely disregarded marginalized communities’ rights to the coast and removed access entirely, with no consultation. However, in December 2016, the Tsitsikamma National Park MPA was rezoned from a ‘no-take’ to a partially open protected area with the aim of re-addressing these historical injustices and to provide equitable access and benefits to adjacent communities. However, past marginalization has changed how communities interact and access the coast, and limited consultation has increased the tension between the regulating authority and the community. There has also been a subsequent national outcry from the public, conservation non-governmental organization (NGO) representatives, fisheries scientists and marine biologists who view the re-zoning as politically motivated, and detrimental towards marine conservation objectives. This research therefore critically examines the different perceptions of stakeholders towards the rezoning of Africa’s oldest marine protected area, the Tsitsikamma National Park MPA. To do so, it draws on 56 semi-structured key informant interviews from the nine different communities adjacent to the Tsitsikamma MPA, scientists, NGO and government officials, as well as a focus group with eight representatives from South African National Parks. The research highlights the challenge of balancing community needs with conservation goals in a rapidly changing marine context, the opposition and inequity emerging to undermine opportunities for sustainable outcomes (social and ecological), and the need for governance of MPAs in South Africa that is reflective of the human rights that must underpin efforts to achieve biological goals.


Rethinking Marine Protected Area Governance in South Africa
Merle Sowman, Philile Mbatha and Ella Kari-Muhl

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as a tool for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management are under the spotlight in South Africa following the proclamation of 20 new MPAs in October 2018 and plans to increase protection of marine areas to 10% of the EEZ by 2033. While many of the new MPAs are offshore, some are contiguous to the coast and affect coastal communities. Coastal communities have become increasingly vociferous in their demands for access to resources and traditional fishing areas claiming that current governance approaches disregard their human rights and livelihood needs. They are critical of the state-centric and natural science-based approach that dominates the governance of these areas. Drawing on research conducted in four MPAs in South Africa, this paper examines how current governance approaches have led to discontent, contestations, conflict and alienation of resource users from marine conservation efforts. In particular, the paper focuses on the mismatches between coastal communities and other governance actors with respect to visions, worldviews, values, images and perceptions of MPAs. While the devastating impact of South Africa’s political history is evident in all cases, other factors that inhibit meaningful change and the formation of governance systems that are supported and respected are highlighted. These include the persistence of a top-down, technocratic and natural science-based approaches; divergent principles, values, worldviews, images and perceptions amongst governance actors; institutional mismatches including the approach to planning and managing MPAs, law enforcement and failure to recognise and respect local and customary forms of governance. Lessons from this research offer insights into the underlying reasons for these mismatches, identify mechanisms for dealing with redress of past injustices and propose a set of principles and approaches for transforming MPA governance in South Africa that places communities front and centre of conservation efforts.



Friday June 28, 2019 10:15 - 11:45
REC A2.10 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

12:00

Science Policy Plenary Discussion
Chair: Prof. Dr. Anna Katharina Hornidge. 

Introduction
Governing our oceanic systems, seas, coastlines, and marine resources sustainably remains one of the key environmental, development and thus societal challenges of the 21st century. The role of the sciences, and with this also science policy-making, which significantly guides scientific knowledge production and public outreach, in this endeavour take centre stage in this plenary discussion. What kind of science policy do we need for the marine sustainability science we want? With reflections on science policy for ocean research and management from different parts of Europe as well as the European Union itself, the plenary aims to spur discussions on the ocean as an object of policy-making.

Invited Speakers:
- Dr. Agostino Inguscio, Policy Officer, Marine Resources Unit, DG Research and Innovation, European Commission, Belgium.
        ‘The EUs Engagement in Marine Science to achieve the SDGs’

- Prof. Dr. Joyeeta Gupta, Professor of Environment and Development in the Global South, University of Amsterdam
        ‘Science-policy interface: Lessons from GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People

- Prof. Dr. John Kurien, International Collective in Support of Fishworkers.
        ‘EU Fisheries Policies reflected from the Global South & the Role of Marine Sciences

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Karin Lochte, Speaker, German Alliance for Marine Research (D.A.M.)  
        ‘The Contribution of German Marine Research to International Agenda Processes’

Possible Discussion Points:
Scientifically assessing and sustainably managing the ocean is one of the biggest challenges of our times. In order to achieve this, the ocean itself has to take on the role of a boundary object, bringing together very different actor groups within science, as well as from science, politics, and practice in order to shape the governance schemes that ensure sustainable use in the future.

Nearly 90% of the peer-reviewed produced intellectual property for scientifically knowing the ocean is produced in Europe, North America, and Asia (UNESCO IOC 2017). While China’s marine scientific knowledge production is currently growing the fastest, Europe and North America remain the leading players in the field – yet with differing thematic foci, disciplinary mixes, and degrees of basic versus applied research. Intensified international coordination and collaboration across marine sciences is pertinent for reaching a level of understanding of the ocean, its functions, and use patterns that makes its protection possible.

A global shift towards sustainable non-harmful interaction with the ocean, protecting it in its role as climate regulator, is required. The differentiated scientific eye, enabled by the existing cannon of natural to social science and humanities disciplines at European universities and research institutes, can reliably contribute to empirically assessing use and management patterns with regard to the ocean, its services and resources, as well as to the development of socio-economic transformational pathways for sustainable ocean development. Nevertheless, this potential so far is not used. Marine social sciences and humanities play a minor role in the cannon of marine sciences, and are little nurtured by science donors. Social scientific expertise on use patterns, institutional incentive mechanisms, cognitive human processes of making sense of the ocean, or on adaptive capacities in society for living with a changing ocean continues to play a neglected, although pivotal, role

Science communication and with this also ‘the science of science communication’ remain an under-addressed challenge within the field of marine sciences and ocean management. Improving humankind’s interaction with the ocean, requires the increase of ocean literacy within societies globally. Yet, what exactly that means and how to do it is a field of research that is only just developing. Which roles should and can marine social sciences play in this endeavour?

Bios of Speakers:

Dr. Agostino Inguscio
Agostino Inguscio is a Policy Officer in the Healthy Planet Directorate of the European Commission (DG-Research and Innovation). He worked on the 2018 EU Bioeconomy Strategy and he currently works for the Marine Resources Unit focusing on issues of sustainability in the seas and oceans. He holds a D.Phil in Economic and Social History from the University of Oxford and he is a visiting lecturer in Sustainable Development at the University of Milan. Before joining the Commission, he worked as a post-doc at the Economic Growth Center of Yale University (2012-2014) and as a lecturer in Economic History at the University of Cape Town (2014-2015).

Prof. Dr. Joyeeta Gupta
Joyeeta Gupta is presently co-chair of UN Environment’s Global Environmental Outlook-6 (2016-2019) which was presented to 193 governments participating in the United Nations Environment Assembly in 2019 and was covered in newspapers worldwide. She is full professor of environment and development in the global south at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research of the University of Amsterdam and IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft. She leads the programme group on Governance and Inclusive Development.

Prof. Dr. John Kurien
John Kurien started professional life helping small-scale fishers to organise their cooperatives. Later he joined the Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, India and retired from there as Professor. He was Vice-Chair of the FAO/UN Advisory Committee for Fisheries Research for a decade. Currently he is Visiting Professor at the School of Development, Azim Premji University, Bangalore, India and also Honorary Fellow of WorldFish with headquarters in Penang, Malaysia. His research and practice relate primarily to socio-economics and political ecology of small-scale fisheries. He sees himself as a reflective practitioner and a reluctant academic.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Karin Lochte
Karin Lochte earned her PhD from the University of Wales (UK) in 1985. Her research focusses on biological turnover of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean and on the role of biological processes in climate regulation. She held professorships in Biological Oceanography at the Universities of Bremen, Kiel, and Rostock. She was the Director of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (Germany) from 2007 to 2017 and served on many national and international scientific committees for marine and polar research.

Friday June 28, 2019 12:00 - 13:00
REC A0.01 Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam

13:00

Lunch
Friday June 28, 2019 13:00 - 14:00
Platform REC A. and 2nd floor REC A. Roeters Eiland Complex, University of Amsterdam